- 作者列表："Kim DJ","Bartlett EA","DeLorenzo C","Parsey RV","Kilts C","Cáceda R
:We aimed to identify brain structural changes in cortical and subcortical regions linked to recent suicidal behavior. We performed secondary analyses of structural MRI data of two independent studies, namely the Establishing Moderators/Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response - Clinical Care (EMBARC) study and a Little Rock study on acute suicidal behavior. Study 1 (EMBARC, N = 187), compared individuals with remote suicide attempts (Remote-SA), individuals with lifetime suicide ideation but no attempts (Lifetime-SI only), and depressed individuals without lifetime suicide ideation or attempts (non-suicidal depressed). Study 2 (Little Rock data, N = 34) included patients recently hospitalized for suicide ideation or attempt constituted by: patients who recently attempted suicide (Recent-SA), individuals with remote suicide attempts (Remote-SA), and Lifetime-SI only. Study 3 combined the EMBARC and Little Rock datasets including Recent-SA, Remote-SA, Lifetime-SI only and non-suicidal depressed individuals. In Study 1 and Study 2, no significant differences were observed between groups. In Study 3, significantly lower middle temporal gyrus thickness, insular surface area, and thalamic volume and higher volume in the nucleus accumbens were observed in Recent-SA. This pattern of structural abnormalities may underlie pain and emotion dysregulation, which have been linked to the transition from suicidal thoughts to action.
: 我们旨在确定与近期自杀行为相关的皮质和皮质下区域的脑结构变化。我们对两项独立研究的结构MRI数据进行了二次分析，即抗抑郁反应-临床护理 (EMBARC) 研究的建立调节者/生物特征研究和急性自杀行为的小Rock研究。研究1 (EMBARC，N = 187)，比较了有远程自杀企图 (remote-SA) 的个体、有终身自杀意念但没有企图的个体 (仅限lifetime-SI) 和没有终身自杀意念或企图的抑郁个体 (非自杀性抑郁)。研究2 (Little Rock数据，N = 34) 包括最近因自杀意念或企图而住院的患者，其构成如下: 最近试图自杀的患者 (最近-SA) 、有远程自杀企图的个体 (远程-SA) 和仅终身-SI。研究3结合了EMBARC和Little Rock数据集，包括近期-SA、远程-SA、仅终身-SI和非自杀性抑郁个体。在研究1和研究2中，未观察到组间的显著差异。在研究3中，在近期-SA中观察到显著较低的颞中回厚度、岛叶表面积和丘脑体积以及较高的伏隔核体积。这种结构异常的模式可能是疼痛和情绪失调的基础，这与从自杀想法到行动的转变有关。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.