Meta-Analysis of white matter diffusion tensor imaging alterations in borderline personality disorder.
- 作者列表："Kelleher-Unger I","Tajchman Z","Chittano G","Vilares I
:Borderline personality disorder (BorPD) is characterized by instability and mood dysregulation, unstable relationships and distorted self-image. Identification of underlying anatomical and physiological changes is crucial to refine current treatments and develop new ones. In this perspective, previous magnetic resonance imaging studies have highlighted alterations associated with BorPD phenotype. In particular, diffusion-weighted imaging/Diffusion tensor imaging (DWI/DTI) has identified many white matter structural alterations in individuals with this diagnosis. Although in its infancy, limiting this line of investigation is a lack of direction at the field level. Hence, the present paper aims to conduct a meta-analysis of DWI/DTI findings in individuals with a diagnosis of BorPD, testing the hypothesis that there are specific white matter alterations associated with BorPD. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of the existing literature of DWI/DTI in BorPD representing a total of 123 individuals with BorPD and 117 Controls. Our results indicated that individuals with BorPD show regions of reduced fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum and fornix. These results survived all jack-knife reshuffles and showed no publication bias. This suggests that alterations in these structures may contribute to psychopathology. Further, the present results lend support to extant psychological and biological models of BorPD.
: 边缘型人格障碍 (BorPD) 的特征是不稳定和情绪失调，不稳定的关系和扭曲的自我形象。识别潜在的解剖和生理变化对于改进当前的治疗和开发新的治疗是至关重要的。从这个角度来看，以前的磁共振成像研究强调了与BorPD表型相关的改变。特别地，扩散加权成像/扩散张量成像 (DWI/DTI) 已经在具有这种诊断的个体中识别出许多白质结构改变。虽然处于起步阶段，但限制这一调查线是缺乏实地层面的方向。因此，本文旨在对诊断为BorPD的个体的DWI/DTI结果进行荟萃分析，检验存在与BorPD相关的特定白质改变的假设。为此，我们对BorPD中DWI/DTI的现有文献进行了荟萃分析，代表了总共123名BorPD个体和117名对照。我们的结果表明，患有BorPD的个体在胼胝体和穹窿中显示出部分各向异性降低的区域。这些结果在所有jack-knife重新洗牌中存活，并且没有显示发表偏倚。这表明这些结构的改变可能有助于精神病理学。此外，目前的结果为BorPD现存的心理和生物模型提供了支持。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.