White Matter Integrity According to the Stage of Mental Disorder in Youth.
- 作者列表："Sacks DD","Lagopoulos J","Hatton SN","Iorfino F","Carpenter JS","Crouse JJ","Naismith SL","Scott EM","Hickie IB","Hermens DF
:The present study investigated differences in white matter (WM) integrity between 96 young people with affective and/or psychotic symptoms classified at an early stage of mental disorder (i.e. 'attenuated syndrome'; stage 1b), 85 young people classified at a more advanced stage of mental disorder (i.e. 'discrete disorder'; stage 2), and 81 demographically matched healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. The relationship between WM integrity (indexed by fractional anisotropy; FA) across the tracts and neuropsychological functioning was also investigated. A significant reduction in FA was identified in those with more advanced disorder in the body of the corpus callosum. Clinical stage groups were associated with significant neuropsychological impairment, which was significantly greater in those with discrete disorders. Compared to those in the earlier stage of disorder, participants at the later clinical stage showed decreased FA in the body of the corpus callosum that was associated with worse performance in attentional set formation maintenance, shifting and flexibility. These results provide further support for clinical staging of mental disorder and highlight the potential for utilising neuroanatomical biomarkers to support the classification of stages of mental disorder in the future.
: 本研究调查了96名患有情感和/或精神病性症状的年轻人在精神障碍的早期阶段 (即“减毒综合征”; 阶段1b)，85名年轻人被分类为精神障碍的更晚期阶段 (即“离散障碍”; 第2期)，并使用扩散张量成像对81名人口统计学匹配的健康对照进行了研究。还研究了跨束的WM完整性 (由部分各向异性索引; FA) 与神经心理功能之间的关系。在胼胝体的更晚期疾病的患者中发现FA显著降低。临床分期组与显著的神经心理损伤相关，这在具有离散病症的患者中显著更大。与处于疾病早期阶段的参与者相比，处于后期临床阶段的参与者显示胼胝体体内的FA降低，这与注意力集中形成维持、移动和灵活性的较差表现相关。这些结果为精神障碍的临床分期提供了进一步的支持，并强调了利用神经解剖学生物标志物来支持未来精神障碍的分期分类的潜力。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.