Downregulation of S100 calcium binding protein A12 inhibits the growth of glioma cells.
下调 S100 钙结合蛋白 A12 抑制胶质瘤细胞的生长。
- 作者列表："Lu C","Liu J","Yao M","Li L","Li G
BACKGROUND:S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) is a member of the S100 protein family and is widely expressed in neutrophil and low expressed in lymphocytes and monocyte. However, the role of S100A12 in glioma has not yet been identified. METHODS:In the present study, we carried out immunohistochemical investigation of S100A12 in 81 glioma tissues to determine the expression of S100A12 in glioma cells, and evaluate the clinical significance of S100A12 in glioma patients. Futher we knockdown the S100A12 by shRNA, and evaluated cell proliferation, cell migration and cell apoptosis by MTT, colony formation assay, transwell assay,flow cytometry assa and western blot. RESULTS:We found that S100A12 was upregulated in tissues of glioma patients and the expression was correlated to WHO stage and tumor size. Further, we found that knockdown S100A12 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells through regulating cell apoptosis and EMT. CONCLUSION:S100A12 plays a vital role in glioma progression, and may be an important regulatory molecule for biological behaviors of glioma cell lines.
背景: S100 钙结合蛋白 A12 (S100A12) 是 S100 蛋白家族的一员，广泛表达于中性粒细胞，在淋巴细胞和单核细胞中低表达。然而，S100A12 在胶质瘤中的作用尚未明确。 方法: 对 81 例胶质瘤组织进行 S100A12 的免疫组化检测，检测 S100A12 在胶质瘤细胞中的表达，并探讨 S100A12 在胶质瘤中的临床意义。进一步我们通过 shRNA 敲除 S100A12，并通过 MTT 、集落形成实验、 transwell 实验、流式细胞术 assa 和 western blot 评价细胞增殖、细胞迁移和细胞凋亡。 结果: 我们发现 S100A12 在胶质瘤患者组织中表达上调，且表达与 WHO 分期和肿瘤大小相关。进一步，我们发现敲除 S100A12 通过调节细胞凋亡和 EMT 抑制胶质瘤细胞的增殖、迁移和侵袭。 结论: S100A12 在胶质瘤进展中起着至关重要的作用，可能是胶质瘤细胞系生物学行为的重要调控分子。
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.