Beneficial effects of Fingolimod on social interaction, CNS and peripheral immune response in the BTBR mouse model of autism.
芬戈莫德对孤独症 BTBR 小鼠模型社会交往、 CNS 和外周免疫反应的有益作用。
- 作者列表："De Simone R","Butera A","Armida M","Pezzola A","Boirivant M","Luisa Potenza R","Ricceri L
:Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social communication deficits and repetitive/stereotyped behaviours. We evaluated the effects of a chronic treatment with the immunomodulator drug Fingolimod (FTY720 - a non-selective Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor ligand) in an ASD model, the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain. In adult BTBR males, chronic FTY720 treatment (4 weeks) increased social and vocal response during a male-female interaction and hippocampal expression of BDNF and Neuregulin 1, two trophic factors reduced in BTBR when compared to control C57 mice. FTY720 also re-established the expression of IL-1β and MnSOD in the hippocampus, whereas it did not modify IL-6 mRNA content. In addition to its central effect, FTY720 modulated the activation state of peripheral macrophages in the BTBR model, both in basal conditions and after stimulation with an immune challenge. Furthermore, IL-6 mRNA colonic content of BTBR mice, reduced when compared with C57 mice, was normalized by chronic treatment with FTY720. Our study, while indicating FTY720 as a tool to attenuate relevant alterations of the BTBR neurobehavioural phenotype, emphasizes the importance of gut mucosal immune evaluation as an additional target that deserve to be investigated in preclinical studies of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches in ASD.
: 自闭症谱系障碍 (ASD) 是以社会交往缺陷和重复/刻板行为为特征的神经发育障碍。我们在 ASD 模型中评价了免疫调节剂药物芬戈莫德 (FTY720-一种非选择性 1-磷酸鞘氨醇受体配体) 慢性治疗的效果,BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) 小鼠品系。在成年 BTBR 男性中，慢性 FTY720 治疗 (4 周) 增加了男女相互作用期间的社会和发声反应以及 BDNF 和神经调节蛋白 1 的海马表达,与对照 C57 小鼠相比，BTBR 中两种营养因子减少。FTY720 也重新建立了海马 il-1 β 和 MnSOD 的表达，而不改变 IL-6 mRNA 含量。除了其中枢效应，FTY720 在基础条件和免疫攻击刺激后，调节 BTBR 模型中外周巨噬细胞的激活状态。此外，与 C57 小鼠相比，BTBR 小鼠的 IL-6 mRNA 结肠含量降低，通过 fty720 慢性治疗使其正常化。我们的研究，同时表明 FTY720 作为一种工具来减弱 BTBR 神经行为表型的相关改变,强调肠黏膜免疫评价作为 ASD 抗炎治疗方法临床前研究中值得研究的额外靶点的重要性。
METHODS::The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has a broad spectrum of functions beyond metabolic control. We previously reported that adiponectin acts in the brain to regulate depression-related behaviors. However, its underlying neural substrates have not been identified. Here we show that adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and colocalized with tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), a marker of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Selective deletion of AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons induced anhedonia in male mice, as indicated by reduced female urine sniffing time and saccharin preference, and behavioral despair in female mice and enhanced stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference in both sexes. The expression levels of TPH2 were downregulated with a concurrent reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN and its two major projection regions, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in male but not female mice lacking AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons. In addition, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression was upregulated in both DRN projection fields of male mice but only in the mPFC of female mice. These changes presumably lead to decreased 5-HT synthesis and/or increased 5-HT reuptake, thereby reducing 5-HT transmission. The augmented behavioral responses to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine but not desipramine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, observed in conditional knockout male mice supports deficient 5-HT transmission underlying depression-related phenotypes. Our results indicate that adiponectin acts on 5-HT neurons through AdipoR1 receptors to regulate depression-related behaviors in a sex-dependent manner.
METHODS::Multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk loci may be involved in gene co-regulation mechanisms, and analysis of coexpressed gene networks may help to clarify SCZ molecular basis. We have previously identified a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) coexpression module enriched for SCZ risk genes and associated with cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes of SCZ, as well as with response to treatment with antipsychotics. Here we aimed to identify regulatory factors modulating this coexpression module and their relevance to SCZ. We performed motif enrichment analysis to identify transcription factor (TF) binding sites in human promoters of genes coexpressed with DRD2. Then, we measured transcript levels of a group of these genes in primary mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and upon overexpression and knockdown of predicted TFs. Finally, we analyzed expression levels of these TFs in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of SCZ patients. Our in silico analysis revealed enrichment for NURR1 and ERR1 binding sites. In neuronal cultures, the expression of genes either relevant to SCZ risk (Drd2, Gatad2a, Slc28a1, Cnr1) or indexing coexpression in our module (Btg4, Chit1, Osr1, Gpld1) was significantly modified by gain and loss of Nurr1 and Err1. Postmortem DLPFC expression data analysis showed decreased expression levels of NURR1 and ERR1 in patients with SCZ. For NURR1 such decreased expression is associated with treatment with antipsychotics. Our results show that NURR1 and ERR1 modulate the transcription of DRD2 coexpression partners and support the hypothesis that NURR1 is involved in the response to SCZ treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we provide in silico and experimental evidence for a role of the TFs NURR1 and ERR1 in modulating the expression pattern of genes coexpressed with DRD2 in human DLPFC. Notably, genetic variations in these genes is associated with SCZ risk and behavioral and neuroimaging phenotypes of the disease, as well as with response to treatment. Furthermore, this study presents novel findings on a possible interplay between D2 receptor-mediated dopamine signaling involved in treatment with antipsychotics and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms exerted by NURR1. Our results suggest that coexpression and co-regulation mechanisms may help to explain some of the complex biology of genetic associations with SCZ.
METHODS::Abnormal neurotransmission is central to schizophrenia (SZ). Alterations across multiple neurotransmitter systems in SZ suggest that this illness may be associated with dysregulation of core intracellular processes such as signaling pathways that underlie the regulation and integration of these systems. The AKT-mTOR signaling cascade has been implicated in SZ by gene association, postmortem brain and animal studies. AKT and mTOR are serine/threonine kinases which play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Both AKT and mTOR require phosphorylation at specific sites for their complete activation. mTOR forms two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 mediates ribosome biogenesis, protein translation, and autophagy, whereas mTORC2 contributes to actin dynamics. Altered protein synthesis and actin dynamics can lead to an abnormal neuronal morphology resulting in deficits in learning and memory. Currently, there is a lack of direct evidence to support the hypothesis of disrupted mTOR signaling in SZ, and we have addressed this by characterizing this signaling pathway in SZ brain. We found a reduction in AKT and mTOR protein expression and/or phosphorylation state in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 22 pairs of SZ and matched comparison subjects. We also found reduced protein expression of GβL, a subunit protein common to both mTOR complexes. We further investigated mTOR complex-specific subunit composition and phosphorylation state, and found abnormal mTOR expression in both complexes in SZ DLPFC. These findings provide evidence that proteins associated with the AKT-mTOR signaling cascade are downregulated in SZ DLPFC.