Engraftment of skeletal progenitor cells by bone-directed transplantation improves osteogenesis imperfecta murine bone phenotype.
- 作者列表："Sinder BP","Novak S","Wee NKY","Basile M","Maye P","Matthews BG","Kalajzic I
:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder most commonly caused by mutations associated with type I collagen, resulting in a defective collagen bone matrix. Current treatments for OI focus on pharmaceutical strategies to increase the amount of defective bone matrix, but do not address the underlying collagen defect. Introducing healthy donor stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts producing normal collagen in OI patients has the potential to increase bone mass and correct the mutant collagen matrix. In this study, donor bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) expressing both αSMACreERT2/Ai9 progenitor reporter and osteoblast reporter Col2.3GFP were locally transplanted into the femur of OI murine (OIM) mice. One month post-transplantation, 18% of the endosteal surface was lined by donor Col2.3GFP expressing osteoblasts indicating robust engraftment. Long-term engraftment in the marrow was observed 3 and 6 months post-transplantation. The presence of Col1a2-expressing donor cell-derived cortical bone matrix was detected in transplanted OIM femurs. Local transplantation of BMSCs increased cortical thickness (+12%), the polar moment of inertia (+14%), bone strength (+30%), and stiffness (+30%) 3 months post-transplantation. Engrafted cells expressed progenitor markers CD51 and Sca-1 up to 3 months post-transplantation. Most importantly, 3 months post-transplantation donor cells maintained the ability to differentiate into Col2.3GFP+ osteoblasts in vitro, and in vivo following secondary transplantation into OIM animals. Locally transplanted BMSCs can improve cortical structure and strength, and persist as continued source of osteoblast progenitors in the OIM mouse for at least 6 months.
: 成骨不全症 (OI) 是一种遗传性疾病，最常由与 I 型胶原相关的突变引起，导致胶原骨基质缺陷。目前对 OI 的治疗侧重于增加缺陷骨基质量的药物策略，但不解决潜在的胶原缺陷。在 OI 患者中引入分化为成骨细胞产生正常胶原的健康供体干细胞，具有增加骨量和纠正突变胶原基质的潜力。本研究将供体骨髓基质细胞 (BMSCs，又称骨髓间充质干细胞) 同时表达 α smacreert2/Ai9 祖细胞报告基因和成骨细胞报告基因 Col2.3GFP，局部移植到 OI 鼠 (OIM) 小鼠股骨。移植后一个月，18% 的内膜表面被表达成骨细胞的供体 Col2.3GFP 衬好，表明植入健壮。移植后 3 个月和 6 个月观察骨髓长期植入情况。在移植的 OIM 股骨中检测到 Col1a2-expressing 供体细胞来源的皮质骨基质的存在。BMSCs 局部移植增加了皮质厚度 (+ 12%) 、极惯性矩 (+ 14%) 、骨强度 (+ 30%) 和刚度 (+ 30%) 移植后 3 个月。移植后 3 个月内移植的细胞表达祖细胞标记物 CD51 和 Sca-1。最重要的是，移植后 3 个月供体细胞在体外保持了分化为 Col2.3GFP + 成骨细胞的能力，在体内二次移植到 OIM 动物后。局部移植的 BMSCs 可以改善皮质结构和强度，并作为 OIM 小鼠成骨细胞祖细胞的持续来源持续至少 6 个月。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.