GRK5 抑制通过降低 NF-κ b 信号减弱软骨降解。
- 作者列表："Sueishi T","Akasaki Y","Goto N","Kurakazu I","Toya M","Kuwahara M","Uchida T","Hayashida M","Tsushima H","Bekki H","Lotz MK","Nakashima Y
OBJECTIVE:NF-κB-dependent signaling is an important modulator in osteoarthritis (OA), and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) regulates the NF-κB pathway. This study was undertaken to investigate the functional involvement of GRK5 in OA pathogenesis. METHODS:GRK5 expression in normal and OA human knee joints was analyzed immunohistochemically. Gain- or loss-of-function experiments were performed using human and mouse chondrocytes. OA was induced in GRK5-knockout mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus, and histologic examination was performed. OA was also induced in wild-type mice, which were then treated with an intraarticular injection of amlexanox, a selective GRK5 inhibitor, every 5 days for 8 weeks. RESULTS:GRK5 protein expression was increased in human OA cartilage. In vitro, expression levels of OA-related factors and NF-κB transcriptional activation were down-regulated by suppression of the GRK5 gene in human OA chondrocytes (3.49-fold decrease in IL6 [P < 0.01], 2.43-fold decrease in MMP13 [P < 0.01], and 2.66-fold decrease in ADAMTS4 [P < 0.01]). Conversely, GRK5 overexpression significantly increased the expression of OA-related catabolic mediators and NF-κB transcriptional activation. On Western blot analysis, GRK5 deletion reduced IκBα phosphorylation (up to 4.4-fold decrease [P < 0.05]) and decreased p65 nuclear translocation (up to 6.4-fold decrease [P < 0.01]) in mouse chondrocytes. In vivo, both GRK5 deletion and intraarticular amlexanox protected mouse cartilage against OA. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that GRK5 regulates cartilage degradation through a catabolic response mediated by NF-κB signaling, and is a potential target for OA treatment. Furthermore, amlexanox may be a major compound in relevant drugs.
目的: NF-κ b 依赖性信号是骨关节炎 (OA) 的重要调控因子，g蛋白偶联受体激酶 5 (GRK5) 调节 NF-κ b 通路。本研究旨在探讨 GRK5 在 OA 发病机制中的功能参与。 方法: 应用免疫组织化学方法分析 GRK5 在正常和 OA 膝关节中的表达。使用人和小鼠软骨细胞进行增益或功能丧失实验。通过内侧半月板不稳定诱导 GRK5-knockout 小鼠 OA，并进行组织学检查。也在野生型小鼠中诱导 OA，然后关节腔内注射选择性 GRK5 抑制剂 amlexanox，每 5 天治疗 8 周。 结果: GRK5 蛋白在人 OA 软骨中表达增加。在体外,抑制 GRK5 基因可下调人 OA 软骨细胞 OA 相关因子的表达水平和 NF-κ b 的转录激活 (IL6 降低 3.49 倍 [P <0.01],MMP13 降低 2.43 倍 [P <0.01]，ADAMTS4 降低 2.66 倍 [P <0.01])。相反，GRK5 过表达显著增加了 OA 相关分解代谢介质的表达和 NF-κ b 的转录激活。在 Western blot 分析中，GRK5 缺失降低了 i κ b α 磷酸化 (最高降低 4.4 倍 [P < 0.05]) 小鼠软骨细胞 p65 核转位减少 (减少 6.4 倍 [P <0.01])。在体内，GRK5 缺失和关节内 amlexanox 保护小鼠软骨对抗 OA。 结论: 我们的结果表明，GRK5 通过 NF-κ b 信号介导的分解代谢反应调节软骨降解，是 OA 治疗的潜在靶点。此外，amlexanox 可能是相关药物中的主要化合物。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.