- 作者列表："Hershkovich O","D'Souza A","Rushton PRP","Onosi IS","Yoon WW","Grevitt MP
AIMS:Significant correction of an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the coronal plane through a posterior approach is associated with hypokyphosis. Factors such as the magnitude of the preoperative coronal curve, the use of hooks, number of levels fused, preoperative kyphosis, screw density, and rod type have all been implicated. Maintaining the normal thoracic kyphosis is important as hypokyphosis is associated with proximal junctional failure (PJF) and early onset degeneration of the spine. The aim of this study was to determine if coronal correction per se was the most relevant factor in generating hypokyphosis. METHODS:A total of 95 patients (87% female) with a median age of 14 years were included in our study. Pre- and postoperative radiographs were measured and the operative data including upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), lower instrumented vertebra (LIV), metal density, and thoracic flexibility noted. Further analysis of the post-surgical coronal outcome (group 1 < 60% correction and group 2 ≥ 60%) were studied for their association with the postoperative kyphosis in the sagittal plane using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS:Of the 95 patients, 71.6% (68) had a thoracic correction of > 60%. Most (97.8%) had metal density < 80%, while thoracic flexibility > 50% was found in 30.5% (29). Preoperative hypokyphosis (< 20°) was present in 25.3%. A postoperative thoracic hypokyphosis was four times more likely to occur in patients with thoracic correction ≥ 60% (odds ratio (OR) 4.08; p = 0.005), after adjusting for confounding variables. This association was not affected by metal density, thoracic flexibility, LIV, UIV, age, or sex. CONCLUSION:Our study supports the 'essential lordosis' hypothesis of Roaf and Dickson, i.e. with a greater ability to translate the apical vertebra towards the midline, there is a commensurate lengthening of the anterior column due to the vertebral wedging. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(4):513-518.
目的: 通过后入路在冠状平面上显著矫正青少年特发性脊柱侧凸与脊柱后凸不足有关。术前冠状曲线的大小、钩的使用、融合节段的数量、术前后凸畸形、螺钉密度和杆型等因素都有牵连。保持正常的胸椎后凸是重要的，因为脊柱后凸不足与近端交界性失败 (PJF) 和脊柱早发性退变有关。本研究的目的是确定冠状位矫正本身是否是产生低后凸的最相关因素。 方法: 本研究共纳入 95 例患者 (87% 为女性)，中位年龄 14 岁。测量术前和术后 x光片，并记录手术数据，包括上器械椎体 (UIV) 、下器械椎体 (LIV) 、金属密度和胸廓柔韧性。进一步分析术后冠状结局 (组 1 < 60% 校正和组 2 ≥ 60%) 使用单变量和多变量 logistic 回归研究其与矢状面术后后凸的相关性。 结果: 95 例患者中，71.6% 例 (68 例) 胸部矫正> 60%。大多数 (97.8%) 的金属密度 <80%，而胸廓柔韧性> 50% 见于 30.5% (29)。25.3% 的患者存在术前脊柱后凸畸形 (< 20 °)。在校正混杂变量后，胸廓矫正 ≥ 60% 的患者术后胸椎后凸不足的可能性增加 4 倍 (比值比 (OR) 4.08; p = 0.005)。这种相关性不受金属密度、胸部柔韧性、 LIV 、 UIV 、年龄或性别的影响。 结论: 我们的研究支持了 Roaf 和 Dickson 的 “基本剂量” 假说，即由于根尖椎体向中线平移的能力更大，由于椎体楔形，前柱有相应的延长。引用本文: 骨关节 J 2020;102-B(4):513-518。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.