巨噬细胞代表心肌炎患者 il-7r α 表达细胞的主要池。
- 作者列表："Kubin N","Richter M","Sen-Hild B","Akintürk H","Schönburg M","Kubin T","Cetinkaya A
:Myocarditis is characterized by infiltration and activation of cytokine as well as chemokine receptors frequently producing heart failure. Causes are often infections triggering inflammatory and immune responses but these initial lines of defense might be finally disastrous. To identify mediators we screened various receptors by confocal microscopy and identified cardiac interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor-α (IL-7Rα) expressing cells in patients with myocarditis. IL-7Rα+ cells were analyzed by markers for leukocytes (CD45), B cells (CD19), T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8) and macrophages (CD68, CD163, CD206). Immune cells were hardly detected in controls. In patients with myocarditis main inflammatory populations consisted of macrophages and T cells. B cells were hardly present. 90% of CD68+ macrophages but less than 20% of CD3+ T cells were IL-7Rα+. This was surprising since T and B lymphocytes are generally regarded as the major IL-7Rα+ cells. Since IL-7 acts as a chemokine, the expression of its receptor might orchestrate cardiac macrophage infiltration. In contrast, consumption of IL-7 by IL-7Rα+ cardiac macrophages might potentially prevent a certain overshooting immune reaction and sepsis by reducing proliferation and survival of lymphocytes. Our data suggest a participation of IL-7Rα+ macrophages in the development of myocarditis and heart failure.
: 心肌炎的特征是细胞因子以及趋化因子受体的浸润和激活，经常产生心力衰竭。原因通常是感染引发炎症和免疫反应，但这些初始防线可能最终是灾难性的。为了确定介质，我们通过共聚焦显微镜筛选了各种受体，并确定了心肌炎患者表达心肌 interleukin-7 (IL-7) 受体-α (il-7r α) 的细胞。通过白细胞 (CD45) 、 b细胞 (CD19) 、 T 细胞 (CD3 、 CD4 、 CD8) 和巨噬细胞 (CD68 、 CD163 、 CD206) 的标志物分析 il-7r α + 细胞。在对照组中几乎没有检测到免疫细胞。在心肌炎患者中，主要的炎症群体包括巨噬细胞和 T 细胞。B细胞几乎不存在。90% 的 CD68 + 巨噬细胞但不到 20% 的 CD3 + T 细胞为 il-7r α +。这是令人惊讶的，因为 T 和 B 淋巴细胞通常被认为是主要的 il-7r α + 细胞。由于 IL-7 作为趋化因子，其受体的表达可能协调心脏巨噬细胞浸润。相比之下，il-7r α + 心脏巨噬细胞消耗 IL-7 可能通过减少淋巴细胞的增殖和存活来潜在地防止某种过度免疫反应和败血症。我们的数据表明 il-7r α + 巨噬细胞参与心肌炎和心力衰竭的发展。
METHODS:Abstract Background Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a high-cost, resource-intensive public health burden that is associated with a 1-year mortality rate of about 16% in western population. Different in patient ethnicity and pattern of practice may impact the clinical outcome. We aim to determine 1-year mortality and to identify factors that significantly predicts 1-year mortality of Thai patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods This prospective multicenter registry enrolled consecutive Thai patients that were diagnosed with ischemic cardiomyopathy at 9 institutions located across Thailand. Patients with left ventricular function 75% in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery or coronary angiography, and/or two major epicardial coronary stenoses; 2) prior myocardial infarction; 3) prior revascularization by coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous coronary intervention; or, 4) magnetic resonance imaging pattern compatible with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Baseline clinical characteristics, coronary and echocardiographic data were recorded. The 1-year clinical outcome was pre-specified. Results Four hundred and nineteen patients were enrolled. Thirty-nine patients (9.9%) had died at 1 year, with 27 experiencing cardiovascular death, and 12 experiencing non-cardiovascular death. A comparison between patients who were alive and patients who were dead at 1 year revealed lower baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (26.7 ± 7.6% vs 30.2 ± 7.8%; p = 0.021), higher left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (185.8 ± 73.2 ml vs 155.6 ± 64.2 ml; p = 0.014), shorter mitral valve deceleration time (142.9 ± 57.5 ml vs 182.4 ± 85.7 ml; p = 0.041), and lower use of statins (94.7% vs 99.7%; p = 0.029) among deceased patients. Patients receiving guideline-recommended β-blockers had lower mortality than patients receiving non-guideline-recommended β-blockers (8.1% vs 18.2%; p = 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study revealed a 9.9% 1-year mortality rate among Thai ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Doppler echocardiographic parameters significantly associated with 1-year mortality were LVEF, LVEDV, mitral E velocity, and mitral valve deceleration time. The use of non-guideline-recommended β-blockers rather than guideline recommended β-blockers were associated with increased with 1-year mortality. Guidelines recommended β-blockers should be preferred. Trial registration Thai Clinical Trials Registry TCTR20190722002. Registered 22 July 2019. “Retrospectively registered”.
METHODS:Abstract Background Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is rare and potentially life-threatening; its etiology remains unclear. Imaging characteristics on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and their prognostic significance have rarely been studied. We sought to determine CMR’s prognostic value in PPCM by using T1 and T2 mapping techniques. Methods Data from 21 PPCM patients from our CMR registry database were analyzed. The control group comprised 20 healthy age-matched females. All subjects underwent comprehensive contrast-enhanced CMR. T1 and T2 mapping using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery and T2 prep balanced steady-state free precession sequences, respectively. Ventricular size and function, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), myocardial T1 value, extracellular volume (ECV), and T2 value were analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at baseline and during follow-up. The recovered left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was defined as LVEF ≥50% on echocardiography follow-up after at least 6 months of the diagnosis. Results CMR imaging showed that the PPCM patients had severely impaired LVEF and right ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 26.8 ± 10.6%; RVEF: 33.9 ± 14.6%). LGE was seen in eight (38.1%) cases. PPCM patients had significantly higher native T1 and ECV (1345 ± 79 vs. 1212 ± 32 ms, P < 0.001; 33.9 ± 5.2% vs. 27.1 ± 3.1%, P < 0.001; respectively) and higher myocardial T2 value (42.3 ± 3.7 vs. 36.8 ± 2.3 ms, P < 0.001) than did the normal controls. After a median 2.5-year follow-up (range: 8 months-5 years), six patients required readmission for heart failure, two died, and 10 showed left ventricular function recovery. The LVEF-recovered group showed significantly lower ECV (30.7 ± 2.1% vs. 36.8 ± 5.6%, P = 0.005) and T2 (40.6 ± 3.0 vs. 43.9 ± 3.7 ms, P = 0.040) than the unrecovered group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed ECV (OR = 0.58 for per 1% increase, P = 0.032) was independently associated with left ventricular recovery in PPCM. Conclusions Compared to normal controls, PPCM patients showed significantly higher native T1, ECV, and T2. Native T1, ECV, and T2 were associated with LVEF recovery in PPCM. Furthermore, ECV could independently predict left ventricular function recovery in PPCM.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is associated with adverse outcomes in HCM patients. Although the left atrial (LA) diameter has consistently been identified as a strong predictor of AF in HCM patients, the relationship between LA dysfunction and AF still remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the LA function in patients with non-obstructive HCM (NOHCM) utilizing cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT).,METHODS:Thirty-three patients with NOHCM and 28 healthy controls were studied. The global and regional LA function and left ventricular (LV) function were compared between the two groups. The following LA global functional parameters were quantitively analyzed: reservoir function (total ejection fraction [LA total EF], total strain [ε], peak positive strain rate [SRs]), conduit function (passive ejection fraction [LA passive EF], passive strain [ε], peak early-negative SR [SRe]), and booster pump function (active ejection fraction [LA active EF], active strain [ε], peak late-negative SR [SRa]). The LA wall was automatically divided into 6 segments: anterior, antero-roof, inferior, septal, septal-roof and lateral. Three LA strain parameters (ε, ε, ε) and their corresponding strain rate parameters (SRs, SRe, SRa) during the reservoir, conduit and booster pump LA phases were segmentally measured and analyzed.,RESULTS:The LA reservoir (LA total EF: 57.6 ± 8.2% vs. 63.9 ± 6.4%, p < 0.01; ε: 35.0 ± 12.0% vs. 41.5 ± 11.2%, p = 0.03; SRs: 1.3 ± 0.4 s vs. 1.5 ± 0.4 s, p = 0.02) and conduit function (LA passive EF: 28.7 ± 9.1% vs. 37.1 ± 10.0%, p < 0.01; ε: 18.7 ± 7.9% vs. 25.9 ± 10.0%, p < 0.01; SRe: - 0.8 ± 0.3 s vs. -1.1 ± 0.4 s, p < 0.01) were all impaired in patients with NOHCM when compared with healthy controls, while LA booster pump function was preserved. The LA segmental strain and strain rate analysis demonstrated that the ε, ε, SRe of inferior, SRs, SRe of septal-roof, and SRa of antero-roof walls (all p < 0.05) were all decreased in the NOHCM cohort. Correlations between LA functional parameters and LV conventional function and LA functional parameters and baseline parameters (age, body surface area and NYHA classification) were weak. The two strongest relations were between ε and LA total EF(r = 0.84, p < 0.01), ε and LA active EF (r = 0.83, p < 0.01).,CONCLUSIONS:Compared with healthy controls, patients with NOHCM have LA reservoir and conduit dysfunction, and regional LA deformation before LA enlargement. CMR-FT identifies LA dysfunction and deformation at an early stage.