- 作者列表："Stine JG","Xu D","Schmitz K","Sciamanna C","Kimball SR
INTRODUCTION:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a more severe type of NAFLD. Exercise improves NASH, by reversing steatosis, and may arrest fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying these interactions are unknown. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a fuel-sensing enzyme that is activated by energy stress. Mammalian target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1) is a nutrient sensor that regulates protein synthesis. In NASH, AMPK activity is low and mTORC1 is high. In healthy persons, exercise activates AMPK and suppresses mTORC1. We examined the effects of exercise on hepatic ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation, a downstream target of AMPK and mTORC1 in patients with NASH. METHODS:Three subjects with biopsy-proven NASH underwent a structured, 20-week aerobic exercise intervention, five-days a week for 30-min at a moderate intensity (40-55% of VO2max). Immunofluorescence staining for rpS6 phosphorylation in hepatic tissue was quantified by ImageJ software. RESULTS:Following 20-weeks of aerobic exercise, rpS6 levels were significantly attenuated (3.9 ± 1.9 pre-exercise vs. 1.4 +/0.4 post-exercise, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest exercise modulates the AMPK/mTORC1 pathway in patients with NASH and may guide the design of future studies into the mechanism of how exercise improves NASH and possibly reverses fibrosis.
导读: 非酒精性脂肪性肝病 (NAFLD) 是全球肝病的首要病因。非酒精性脂肪性肝炎 (NASH) 是一种更严重的 NAFLD 类型。运动通过逆转脂肪变性改善 NASH，并可能阻止纤维化。然而，这些相互作用的潜在机制尚不清楚。AMP 激活的蛋白激酶 (AMPK) 是一种被能量应激激活的燃料敏感酶。哺乳动物雷帕霉素复合物靶点 1 (mTORC1) 是一种调节蛋白质合成的营养传感器。在 NASH 中，AMPK 活性低，mTORC1 高。在健康人中，运动激活 AMPK 并抑制 mtorc1。我们检测了运动对 NASH 患者 AMPK 和 mTORC1 下游靶点肝核糖体蛋白 S6 磷酸化的影响。 方法: 3 例经活检证实的 NASH 受试者接受了为期 20 周的结构化有氧运动干预,每周 5 天，30 分钟，中等强度 (VO2max 的 40-55%)。用 ImageJ 软件定量肝组织中 rpS6 磷酸化的免疫荧光染色。 结果: 20 周有氧运动后，rpS6 水平显著减弱 (运动前 3.9 ± 1.9 vs 运动后 1.4 ± 0.4，p = 0.04)。 结论: 这些发现表明运动调节 NASH 患者的 AMPK/mTORC1 通路，并可能指导未来研究的设计，了解运动如何改善 NASH 并可能逆转纤维化的机制。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Opioids are often prescribed for pain in cirrhosis and may increase the risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIMS:To assess the association between opioids and HE in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:We used the IQVIA PharMetrics (Durham, NC) database to identify patients aged 18-64 years with cirrhosis. We excluded patients with any decompensation event from 1 year before cirrhosis diagnosis to 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis. Over the 6 months after cirrhosis diagnosis, we determined the duration of continuous opioid use and classified use into short term (1-89 days) and chronic (90-180 days). We assessed whether patients developed HE over the subsequent year (ie 6-18 months after cirrhosis diagnosis). We used a landmark analysis and performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between opioid use and HE, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS:The cohort included 6451 patients with compensated cirrhosis, of whom 23.3% and 4.7% had short-term and chronic opioid prescriptions respectively. Over the subsequent year, HE occurred in 6.3% patients with chronic opioid prescriptions, 5.0% with short-term opioid prescriptions and 3.3% with no opioid prescriptions. In the multivariable model, an increased risk of HE was observed with short-term (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and chronic opioid prescriptions (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.12) compared to no opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSION:In this national cohort of privately insured patients with cirrhosis, opioid prescriptions were associated with the risk of incident HE. Opioid use should be minimised in those with cirrhosis and, when required, limited to short duration.
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Cirrhosis is characterized by extensive fibrosis of the liver and is a major cause of liver-related mortality. Cirrhosis is partially heritable but genetic contributions to cirrhosis have not been systemically explored. Here, we carry out association analyses with cirrhosis in two large biobanks and determine the effects of cirrhosis associated variants on multiple human disease/traits. METHODS:We carried out a genome-wide association analysis of cirrhosis as a diagnosis in UK BioBank (UKBB; 1088 cases vs. 407 873 controls) and then tested top-associating loci for replication with cirrhosis in a hospital-based cohort from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI; 875 cases of cirrhosis vs. 30 346 controls). For replicating variants or variants previously associated with cirrhosis that also affected cirrhosis in UKBB or MGI, we determined single nucleotide polymorphism effects on all other diagnoses in UKBB (PheWAS), common metabolic traits/diseases and serum/plasma metabolites. RESULTS:Unbiased genome-wide association study identified variants in/near PNPLA3 and HFE, and candidate variant analysis identified variants in/near TM6SF2, MBOAT7, SERPINA1, HSD17B13, STAT4 and IFNL4 that reproducibly affected cirrhosis. Most affected liver enzyme concentrations and/or aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index. PheWAS, metabolic trait and serum/plasma metabolite association analyses revealed effects of these variants on lipid, inflammatory and other processes including new effects on many human diseases and traits. CONCLUSIONS:We identified eight loci that reproducibly associate with population-based cirrhosis and define their diverse effects on human diseases and traits.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis. In recent years, it has been postulated that the rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is increasing, especially in nosocomial SBP patients. Aim of the present work was to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical consequences. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and three culture-positive patients between 2007 and 2014 were compared with 81 patients between 2015 and 2017, to study the change of microbiological profiles and their clinical consequences. The cirrhosis patients with bacterascites requiring treatment were included as well. RESULTS:The most prevalent Gram-negative bacteria isolated from ascites were Enterobacterales (31.6%) and in Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococci (22.8%). There was a significant increase in MDROs (22.3% ICU 40.7%, P = .048), accompanied by an increased incidence of sepsis (from 21.4% to 37.0%, P = .021), hepatorenal syndrome (from 40.8% to 58.0%, P = .007) and the need of catecholamine therapy (from 21.4% to 38.8%, P = .036). Nosocomial origin correlated with higher MDRO proportion, more complications and lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates in 12 commonly used antibiotics. MDROs were confirmed as an isolated predictor for inpatient mortality and complications in multivariable logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS:The feeling in clinical practice that MDROs have increased in the last 11 years could be confirmed in our study in Munich, Germany. Nosocomial SBP correlated with significantly higher MDRO rates (nearly 50%) and complication rates. In our opinion, an antibiotic combination with comprehensive effect should be taken into account in nosocomial SBP patients in this region.