Combination Antihypertensive Therapy Prescribing and Blood Pressure Control in a Real-World Setting.
- 作者列表："Magvanjav O","Cooper-Dehoff RM","McDonough CW","Gong Y","Hogan WR","Johnson JA
BACKGROUND:Specific combinations of two drug classes are recommended in a variety of clinical situations in the management of hypertension. These preferred combinations are based on complimentary blood pressure (BP) lowering mechanisms or benefit for a concomitant disease. METHODS:Using electronic health records (EHRs) data from 27,579 ambulatory hypertensive patients, we investigated antihypertensive therapy prescribing patterns and associations of preferred two drug classes with BP control. RESULTS:Overall, BP control, defined as BP <140/90 mm Hg, was 65% among treated patients. Preferred dual antihypertensive therapy was prescribed in 55% of patients with uncomplicated hypertension, 49% of patients with diabetes, and 47% of patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI); these prescribing frequencies of preferred combinations were not explained by worse BP control on those combinations. In fact, we found suggestive evidence of association between prescribing of preferred two drug classes and improved BP control among post-MI (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99-1.48, P = 0.061) and uncomplicated hypertensive (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98-1.26, P = 0.089) patients. CONCLUSIONS:Prescribing of guideline-recommended antihypertensive drug classes for concomitant diseases is suboptimal and prescribing of preferred/optimized drug class combinations was moderate. We did not find a clear association between the use of optimized drug class combinations and greater BP control. Overall, using EHR data, we identified potential opportunities for re-examining prescribing practices with implications for clinical decision support and healthcare improvement at the community and health system-wide levels.
背景: 在高血压管理的各种临床情况下，推荐两种药物的特定组合。这些优选的组合是基于免费的血压 (BP) 降低机制或对伴随疾病的益处。 方法: 使用 27,579 例非卧床高血压患者的电子健康档案 (EHRs) 数据，我们调查了降压治疗处方模式和优选两种药物类别与血压控制的相关性。 结果: 总体而言，在接受治疗的患者中，血压控制 (定义为 BP <140/90mm Hg) 为 65%。55% 的无并发症高血压患者、 49% 的糖尿病患者和 47% 的有心肌梗死 (MI) 病史的患者接受了优选的双重降压治疗; 这些优选组合的处方频率不能用那些组合上更差的 BP 对照来解释。事实上，我们发现了首选两种药物处方与改善 MI 后血压控制之间关联的提示性证据 (OR: 1.21，95% CI: 0.99-1.48，P = 0.061) 和无并发症的高血压 (OR: 1.11，95% CI: 0.98-1.26，P = 0.089) 患者。 结论: 指南推荐的抗高血压药物类别对伴随疾病的处方不理想，优选/优化药物类别组合的处方中等。我们没有发现使用优化的药物类别组合与更大的 BP 控制之间存在明确的关联。总体而言，使用 EHR 数据，我们确定了重新检查处方实践的潜在机会，对社区和卫生系统层面的临床决策支持和医疗保健改善具有影响。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Pregnancy morbidities, including preeclampsia, and CVD are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Possible connections are important to explore. In a population-based cohort, we investigated whether HDP is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes separately in SLE and non-SLE to examine the role of SLE. METHODS:We identified first singleton births in the Medical Birth Register (1987-2012) among mothers with SLE and a large general population comparison group. Discharge diagnoses for HDP, cardiovascular outcomes, and hypertension in the Patient Register were identified using ICD codes. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HR, 95% CI) of the association between HDP and outcomes, in separate models in women with and without SLE. We then evaluated additive and multiplicative effect modification using relative excess risk due to interaction and Cox models jointly accounting for SLE and HDP, respectively. Mediation analysis estimated the proportion of the association between SLE and outcome explained by HDP. RESULTS:HDP were more common in SLE pregnancies (20% vs 7%). In SLE, HDP were associated with a two-fold higher rate of cardiovascular outcomes and three-fold higher rate of incident hypertension. HDP mediated 20% of the latter association. In women without SLE, HDP was associated with higher hypertension incidence later in life. CONCLUSION:In women with and without SLE, HDP were associated with a three-fold higher rate of hypertension. In SLE, women with HDP developed cardiovascular outcomes twice as often as women without HDP.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:'Neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-like' (NEDD4L) is considered a candidate gene for hypertension-both functionally and genetically-through the regulation of the ubiquitination of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). This study explores the relationship between genetic variation in NEDD4L and hypertension with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the southeastern Han Chinese population. METHODS:We recruited 623 CKD patients and measured ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and the rs4149601 and rs2288774 polymorphisms in NEDD4L were genotyped using qPCR. RESULTS:For rs4149601, significant differences in genotype frequencies in an additive model (GG vs GA vs AA) were observed between normotensive patients and hypertensive patients when hypertension was classified into ambulatory hypertension, clinical hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension (P = 0.038, 0.005 and 0.006, respectively). In a recessive model (GG+GA vs AA), the frequency of the AA genotype of rs4149601 in the hypertension groups were all higher than that in the normotensive groups. The genotype distribution of rs2288774 did not differ significantly between the normotensive and hypertensive patients. In both the full cohort and the propensity score matching (PSM) cohort, the AA genotype of rs4149601 (compared to the GG+GA genotype group) was independently correlated with ambulatory hypertension, clinical hypertension and ambulatory systolic hypertension by multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS:The present study indicates that the AA genotype of rs4149601 associates with hypertension in CKD. Consequently, the rs4149601 A allele might be a risk factor for hypertension with CKD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The burden of hypertension in many low-and middle-income countries is alarming and requires effective evidence-based preventative strategies that is carefully appraised and accepted by key stakeholders to ensure successful implementation and sustainability. We assessed nurses' perceptions of a recently completed Task Shifting Strategy for Hypertension control (TASSH) trial in Ghana, and facilitators and challenges to TASSH implementation. METHODS:Focus group sessions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 community health nurses from participating health centers and district hospitals involved in the TASSH trial implemented in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, West Africa from 2012 to 2017. TASSH evaluated the comparative effectiveness of the WHO-PEN program versus provision of health insurance for blood pressure reduction in hypertensive adults. Qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding techniques with emerging themes mapped onto the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). RESULTS:Three themes emerged following deductive analysis using CFIR, including: (1) Patient health goal setting- relative priority and positive feedback from nurses, which motivated patients to make healthy behavior changes as a result of their health being a priority; (2) Leadership engagement (i.e., medical directors) which influenced the extent to which nurses were able to successfully implement TASSH in their various facilities, with most directors being very supportive; and (3) Availability of resources making it possible to implement the TASSH protocol, with limited space and personnel time to carry out TASSH duties, limited blood pressure (BP) monitoring equipment, and transportation, listed as barriers to effective implementation. CONCLUSION:Assessing stakeholders' perception of the TASSH implementation process guided by CFIR is crucial as it provides a platform for the nurses to thoroughly evaluate the task shifting program, while considering the local context in which the program is implemented. The feedback from the nurses informed barriers and facilitators to implementation of TASSH within the current healthcare system, and suggested system level changes needed prior to scale-up of TASSH to other regions in Ghana with potential for long-term sustainment of the task shifting intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Trial registration for parent TASSH study: NCT01802372. Registered February 27, 2013.