A multidisciplinary approach to VA ECMO cannulation in children.
儿童 VA ECMO 插管的多学科方法。
- 作者列表："Gleeson EI","Cunningham ME","Burgman C","Musick MA","Thomas JA","Gardner GC","Kukreja KU","Vogel AM
PURPOSE:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports gas exchange and circulation in critically ill patients. This study describes a multidisciplinary approach to ECMO cannulation using the expertise of pediatric surgery (PS) and interventional radiology (IR). MATERIAL AND METHODS:Pediatric patients (<18 years) undergoing percutaneous cannulation for peripheral veno-arterial (VA) ECMO by PS and IR from April 2017 to May 2018 were included. Cardiac patients and children cannulated by PS alone were excluded. RESULTS:Five patients were included in the series. Median age was 16 [12.5-17] years and 3 were female. Median ECMO arterial and venous catheter sizes were 19 [17-22] Fr and 25 [25-28] Fr, respectively. Both catheters were placed in the common femoral vessels. A 6Fr antegrade distal perfusion cannula (DPC) was also placed in the superficial femoral artery by IR at the time of cannulation. The median time from admission to procedure start was 10 [7-50] hours and the children were on ECMO for a median length of 3.2 [2.3-4.8] days. There were two episodes of bleeding. No patients had loss of limb circulation. CONCLUSION:A multidisciplinary approach to peripheral VA ECMO cannulation is feasible and safe. Maintenance of limb perfusion by percutaneous placement and removal of DPC may be an advantage of this collaborative approach. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:IV. TYPE OF RESEARCH:Case series.
目的: 体外膜肺氧合 (ECMO) 支持危重患者的气体交换和循环。本研究利用小儿外科 (PS) 和介入放射学 (IR) 的专业知识，描述了 ECMO 插管的多学科方法。 材料和方法: 纳入 2017年4月至 2018年5月采用 PS 和 IR 经皮穿刺外周静脉动脉 (VA) ECMO 的儿童患者 (<18 岁)。排除单纯 PS 插管的心脏病患者和儿童。 结果: 5 例患者被纳入该系列。中位年龄 16 [12.5-17] 岁，3 例为女性。中位 ECMO 动脉和静脉导管大小分别为 19 [17-22] Fr 和 25 [25-28] Fr。两根导管均放置在股总血管内。插管时也通过 IR 将 6Fr 顺行远端灌注套管 (DPC) 置入股浅动脉。从入院到手术开始的中位时间为 10 [7-50] 小时，儿童在 ECMO 上的中位时间为 3.2 [2.3-4.8] 天。有两次出血。无患者出现肢体循环丧失。 结论: 外周 VA ECMO 插管的多学科方法是可行和安全的。通过经皮置入和取出 DPC 维持肢体灌注可能是这种协作方法的一个优势。 证据级别: IV 级。 研究类型: 病例系列。
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Continuous albuterol is a mainstay in management of pediatric status asthmaticus. While the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Asthma Guidelines suggest 0.5 mg/kg/hr as the recommended dosage, there is a paucity of evidence comparing different weight based rates on hospital outcomes. METHODS:Patients requiring continuous albuterol for asthma exacerbation from January 2015 to December 2016 were identified using ICD codes. The concentration of albuterol (5 mg/h - 20 mg/h) and the duration of treatment were used to determine total albuterol administration. After dividing by patient weight, average weight based doses were divided into equal quintiles. Unadjusted and length of stay adjusted for age, initial asthma severity score, and administration of magnesium were compared among the quintiles. The same multivariate analysis was used for duration of continuous albuterol. RESULTS:533 hospitalizations for asthma were identified of which 289 received continuous albuterol. Weight based dosage quintiles ranged from lowest (0.07 - 0.29 mg/kg/hr) to the highest (>0.76 - 3.2 mg/kg/hr). Baseline characteristics were similar aside from age, race, and magnesium administration. There was no difference in adjusted length of stay or adjusted duration of continuous albuterol therapy among the five quintiles. CONCLUSION:No optimal weight based dose of continuous albuterol was found. Further investigation is needed to see if lower amounts of continuous albuterol may be as efficacious as higher doses. This could improve cost of status asthmaticus management and limit the number of adverse events associated with high exposure to continuous albuterol.
METHODS:Abstract Background We investigated the association between a combination of two markers, peripheral (PEC) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophil percentage (BEP), and oxygen requirements in patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with AEP treated at the Armed Forces Capital Hospital between May 2012 and May 2017. We used correlation analyses to assess the association between PEC/BEP and clinical outcomes in AEP patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to calculate the cut-off value for BEP that categorised patients requiring a significant oxygen supply. The BAL/blood eosinophil (BBE) score was introduced to stratify patients with peripheral eosinophilia and elevated BEP. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the different groups. Multiple logistic regression was performed for significant oxygen requirements using two different models using age, C-reactive protein (CRP), smoking duration, and BBE score (model 1) and age, CRP, BEP, and PEC (model 2). Results Among the 338 patients, 99.7% were male, and their mean age was 20.4 ± 1.4 years. Only 0.6% of patients were never smokers and the mean number of smoking days was 26.2 ± 25.4. Correlation analyses revealed that both the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and duration of oxygen supply were associated with BEP. ROC curve analyses indicated a cut-off level of 41.5%. Patients with a high BBE score had favourable outcomes in terms of hypoxemia, hospital days, intensive care unit admission, oxygen supply days, and steroid treatment days. Multiple logistic regression revealed that BEP and BBE score tended to be associated with significant oxygen requirements. Conclusions In this study, we revealed that both peripheral and BAL eosinophilia is associated with favourable outcomes in AEP patients.
METHODS:Background. Extensive studies have focused on the diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection; however, rare studies investigated the posttreatment conditions. We analyzed the carrying status of M. pneumoniae in the respiratory tract of children before and after treatment. Methods. Ninety-two children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were included in this study. Clinical data were obtained from each patient, and pharyngeal swab sampling was performed at preliminary diagnosis and discharge. Real-time PCR and dilution quantitative culture were utilized to determine the DNA quantification and number of viable M. pneumoniae from samples collected upon preliminary diagnosis and discharge. Results. All the 92 cases showed DNA positivity upon preliminary diagnosis, serum IgM antibody was detected in 80 patients, and positivity of M. pneumoniae culture was observed in 82 cases. Upon discharge, the M. pneumoniae nucleotide and culture positivity were detected in 87 and 49 cases, respectively. The content of viable M. pneumoniae was 10–104 CCU/mL and 10–102 CCU/mL in the preliminary diagnosis samples and discharge samples, respectively. Conclusions. Real-time PCR was rapid and effective for the qualitative diagnosis of M. pneumoniae at the early stage, but it cannot be used to evaluate the prognosis of patients with M. pneumoniae infection. Quantitative analysis for M. pneumoniae DNA could not directly reflex the viable strain content.