Effective hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy in a murine model of hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.
- 作者列表："Hetzel M","Lopez-Rodriguez E","Mucci A","Nguyen AHH","Suzuki T","Shima K","Buchegger T","Dettmer S","Rodt T","Bankstahl JP","Malik P","Knudsen L","Schambach A","Hansen G","Trapnell BC","Lachmann N","Moritz T
:Hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to GM-CSF receptor deficiency (herPAP) constitutes a life-threatening lung disease characterized by alveolar deposition of surfactant protein secondary to defective alveolar macrophage function. As current therapeutic options are primarily symptomatic, we have explored the potential of hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy. Using Csf2rb-/- mice, a model closely reflecting the human herPAP disease phenotype, we here demonstrate robust pulmonary engraftment of an alveolar macrophage population following intravenous transplantation of lentivirally corrected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Engraftment was associated with marked improvement of critical herPAP disease parameters, including bronchoalveolar fluid protein, cholesterol and cytokine levels, pulmonary density on computed tomography scans, pulmonary deposition of Periodic Acid-Schiff+ material as well as respiratory mechanics. These effects were stable for at least nine months. With respect to engraftment and alveolar macrophage differentiation kinetics, we demonstrate the rapid development of CD11c+/SiglecF+ cells in the lungs from a CD11c-/SiglecF+ progenitor population within four weeks after transplantation. Based on these data, we suggest hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy as an effective and cause-directed treatment approach for herPAP.
: 由于 GM-CSF 受体缺陷 (herPAP) 引起的遗传性肺泡蛋白沉积症构成了一种危及生命的肺部疾病，其特征是继发于肺泡巨噬细胞功能缺陷的肺泡表面活性蛋白沉积。由于目前的治疗选择主要是症状性的，我们已经探索了基于造血干细胞的基因治疗的潜力。使用 Csf2rb-/-小鼠，一个密切反映人类 herPAP 疾病表型的模型，我们在这里证明了静脉移植慢病毒校正的造血干细胞和祖细胞后肺泡巨噬细胞群的稳健肺植入。植入与严重 herPAP 疾病参数的显著改善相关，包括支气管肺泡灌洗液蛋白、胆固醇和细胞因子水平、计算机断层扫描肺密度,周期性酸-Schiff + 材料的肺沉积以及呼吸力学。这些效应稳定至少 9 个月。关于植入和肺泡巨噬细胞分化动力学，我们证明了 CD11c-/SiglecF + 祖细胞在移植后四周内在肺中快速发育。基于这些数据，我们建议以造血干细胞为基础的基因治疗作为 herPAP 的一种有效且以病因为导向的治疗方法。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.