Effectiveness of omalizumab on patient reported outcomes, lung function, and inflammatory markers in severe allergic asthma.
- 作者列表："Frix AN","Schleich F","Paulus V","Guissard F","Henket M","Louis R
BACKGROUND:Omalizumab arose as a therapeutic option in patients suffering from moderate to severe refractory allergic asthma. It acts as a humanized monoclonal antibody neutralizing circulating IgE antibodies. Randomized clinical trials and real life clinical studies have already confirmed benefits, cost-effectiveness and applicability of the medication. METHOD:Our study retrospectively reports on the clinical outcomes and airway inflammation in 157 severe allergic asthmatics who were initiated with omalizumab between 2007 and 2019. RESULTS:After 4 months of therapy, 76% of the patients were judged to have benefited from omalizumab and were admitted to prolonged treatment. During follow-up, we observed an improvement in asthma control, quality of life and spirometric performance. There was also a sustained reduction in exacerbation rate over the years. As for T2 biomarkers, FeNO significantly decreased and, in a subgroup of patients who had repeated sputum inductions, there was also significant reduction in sputum eosinophils but no change in blood eosinophil count. Lastly, we found a correlation between high FeNO levels at baseline and reduction in ACQ scores at 1 year. CONCLUSION:We conclude that omalizumab shows effectiveness in severe allergic asthma in a real life setting, by reducing exacerbation rate, improving patient perspective outcomes and airway calibre, together with reducing type-2 airway inflammation.
背景: 奥马珠单抗是中重度难治性过敏性哮喘患者的一种治疗选择。它作为人源化单克隆抗体中和循环 IgE 抗体。随机临床试验和现实生活中的临床研究已经证实了该药物的益处，成本效益和适用性。 方法: 我们的研究回顾性报告了 157 例严重过敏性哮喘患者的临床结果和气道炎症，这些患者是在 2019 和 2007年开始使用奥马珠单抗的。 结果: 经过 4 个月的治疗，76% 的患者被判断为受益于奥马珠单抗，并接受了长期治疗。随访期间，我们观察到哮喘控制、生活质量和肺功能表现的改善。多年来，恶化率也持续下降。至于 T2 生物标志物，FeNO 显著降低，在反复痰诱导的患者亚组中，痰嗜酸性粒细胞也显著减少，但血嗜酸性粒细胞计数无变化。最后，我们发现基线时高 FeNO 水平与 1 年时 ACQ 评分降低之间存在相关性。 结论: 我们得出结论，奥马珠单抗通过降低恶化率、改善患者透视结果和气道口径，以及降低 2 型气道炎症，在现实生活环境中显示了对重度过敏性哮喘的有效性。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.