- 作者列表："Jing Niu","Jing Niu","Long Xu","Long Xu","Yun Qian","Yun Qian","Zhuo Sun","Dongbao Yu","Jiandong Huang","Xiaolin Zhou","Yizhong Wang","Ting Zhang","Rongrong Ren","Zhengpeng Li","Jialin Yu","Jialin Yu","Xuefeng Gao","Xuefeng Gao
Temporal development of the human gut microbiome from infancy to childhood is driven by a variety of factors. We surveyed the fecal microbiome of 729 Chinese children aged 0–36 months, aiming to identify the age-specific patterns of microbiota succession, and evaluate the impact of birth mode, gender, geographical location, and gastrointestinal tract symptoms on the shaping of the gut microbiome. We demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbiome increased gradually over time, which was accompanied by an increase in Bacteroidetes and a reduction in Proteobacteria species. Analysis of community-wide phenotypes revealed a succession from aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria to facultative anaerobes, and from Gram-negative to Gram-positive species during gut microbiota development in early childhood. The metabolic functions of the gut microbiome shifted tremendously alongside early physiological development, including an increase in alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and a reduction in glutathione, fatty acid, and tyrosine metabolism. During the first year of life, the Bacteroidetes phylum was less abundant in children born by casarean section compared with those delivered vaginally. The Enterococcaceae family, a group of facultative anaerobic microorganisms with pathogenic potential, was predominant in preterm infants. No measurable effect of maternal antibiotic exposure on gut microbiota development was found in the first 3 years of life. The relative abundances of Coriobacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae families, and Megasphaera genus were found to be higher in girls than in boys. Among the three first-tier Chinese cities, children born and fed in Beijing had a higher abundance of Enterococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, and Shenzhen children had a higher abundance of Fusobacteriaceae. The families Alcaligenaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Porphyromonadaceae were more abundant in children with constipation, whereas the relative abundance of the Clostridium genus was higher in those with diarrhea.
人类肠道微生物组从婴儿期到儿童期的时间发展是由多种因素驱动的。我们调查了 729 名中国 0-36 月龄儿童的粪便微生物组，旨在确定微生物群演替的年龄特异性模式，并评估出生方式、性别、地理位置、和胃肠道症状对肠道微生物组的塑造。我们证明了肠道微生物组的系统发育多样性随着时间的推移逐渐增加，这伴随着拟杆菌的增加和变形杆菌种类的减少。对社区范围内表型的分析发现，在儿童早期肠道菌群发育过程中，从需氧菌和厌氧菌到兼性厌氧菌，从革兰氏阴性到革兰氏阳性。肠道微生物组的代谢功能随着早期生理发育发生了巨大的变化，包括丙氨酸、天冬氨酸和谷氨酸代谢的增加，谷胱甘肽、脂肪酸和酪氨酸代谢的减少。在出生后的第一年，与阴道分娩的儿童相比，剖宫产分娩的儿童中拟杆菌门的数量较少。肠杆菌科是一组具有致病潜力的兼性厌氧微生物，在早产儿中占主导地位。在出生后前 3 年未发现母体抗生素暴露对肠道菌群发育的可测量影响。发现女孩的科氏杆菌科和链球菌科以及 Megasphaera 属的相对丰度高于男孩。在中国三个一线城市中，在北京出生和喂养的儿童有较高的肠杆菌科和 ach科，深圳儿童有较高的梭杆菌科。便秘患儿产碱杆菌科、拟杆菌科、紫菜科较多，而腹泻患儿产气荚膜梭菌属相对丰度较高。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of esophageal stimulation on nutritional adequacy in critically ill patients at risk for enteral feeding intolerance. DESIGN:A multicenter randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Twelve ICUs in Canada. PATIENTS:We included mechanically ventilated ICU patients who were given moderate-to-high doses of opioids and expected to remain alive and ventilated for an additional 48 hours and who were receiving enteral nutrition or expected to start imminently. INTERVENTIONS:Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to esophageal stimulation via an esophageal stimulating catheter (E-Motion Tube; E-Motion Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) or sham treatment. All patients were fed via these catheters using a standardized feeding protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The co-primary outcomes were proportion of caloric and protein prescription received enterally over the initial 7 days following randomization. Among 159 patients randomized, the modified intention-to-treat analysis included 155 patients: 73 patients in the active treatment group and 82 in the sham treatment group. Over the 7-day study period, the percent of prescribed caloric intake (± SE) received by the enteral route was 64% ± 2 in the active group and 65% ± 2 in sham patients for calories (difference, -1; 95% CI, -8 to 6; p = 0.74). For protein, it was 57% ± 3 in the active group and 60% ± 3 in the sham group (difference, -3; 95% CI, -10 to 3; p = 0.30). Compared to the sham group, there were more serious adverse events reported in the active treatment group (13 vs 6; p = 0.053). Clinically important arrhythmias were detected by Holter monitoring in 36 out of 70 (51%) in the active group versus 22 out of 76 (29%) in the sham group (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Esophageal stimulation via a special feeding catheter did not improve nutritional adequacy and was associated with increase risk of harm in critically ill patients.
METHODS:RATIONALE:The long-term effects of delivering approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake via the enteral route during critical illness compared to a lesser amount of calories are unknown. OBJECTIVES:Our hypotheses were that achieving approximately 100% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness would increase quality of life scores, return to work and key life activities and reduce death and disability six months later. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, blinded, parallel group, randomized clinical trial, with 3957 mechanically ventilated critically ill adults allocated to energy-dense (1.5 kcal/ml) or routine (1.0 kcal/ml) enteral nutrition. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Participants assigned energy-dense nutrition received more calories (% recommended energy intake, mean (SD) (energy-dense: 103% (28) vs. usual: 69% (18)). Mortality at day-180 was similar (560/1895 (29.6%) vs. 539/1920 (28.1%); relative risk 1.05 (95%CI, 0.95 to 1.16)). At a median [IQR] of 185 [182, 193] days after randomization, 2492 survivors were surveyed and reported similar quality of life (EuroQol five dimensions five-level quality of life questionnaire visual analogue scale, median [IQR]: 75 [60-85]; group difference: 0 (95%CI, 0 to 0)). Similar numbers of participants returned to work with no difference in hours worked or effectiveness at work (n=818). There was no observed difference in disability (n=1208) or participation in key life activities (n=705). CONCLUSIONS:The delivery of approximately 100% compared to 70% of recommended calorie intake during critical illness does not improve quality of life, or functional outcomes, or increase the number of survivors six months later. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02306746.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Provision of enteral nutrition with jejunal feeding in upper gastrointestinal obstruction is highly recommended. Access to jejunum can be obtained surgically, percutaneously, or endoscopically. Our institution routinely and preferentially utilizes a silicone nasojejunal tube that is inserted past the obstruction endoscopically. We use a custom dual channel tube that allows feeding at the distal tip and another channel 40 cm from the tip that enables decompression proximally. This is a report of our experience with this custom nasojejunal tube. METHODS:This is a prospective observational study of 201 patients who underwent endoscopic nasojejunal wire-guided feeding tube insertions for obstruction of either the esophagus or the stomach including both benign and malignant pathologies between January 2015 to June 2018 in Hospital Sungai Buloh and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Malaysia. The indications for tube insertion, insertion technique, and tube-related problems were described. RESULTS:The nasojejunal tube was used to establish enteral feeding in patients with obstructing tumors of the distal esophagus in 65 patients (32.3%) and gastric outlet obstruction in 72 patients (35.8%). There were 54 patients (26.9%) who required reinsertion. The most common reason for reinsertion was unintentional dislodgement, where 32 patients (15.9%) followed by tube blockage 20 patients (10.0%). Using our method of advancement under direct vision, we had only 2 cases of malposition due to severely deformed anatomy. We had no incidence of aspiration in this group of patients and overall, the patients tolerated the tube well. CONCLUSIONS:The novel nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function is a safe and effective method of delivery of enteral nutrition in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction. These tubes if inserted properly are well tolerated with almost no risk of malposition and are tolerated well even for prolonged periods of time until definitive surgery could be performed.