Brain Metastases From Gynecologic Malignancies: Prevalence and Management.
- 作者列表："Nasioudis D","Persaud A","Taunk NK","Latif NA
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinicopathologic characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with brain metastasis (BM) from gynecologic malignancies in a large hospital-based database. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was accessed and patients with ovarian, uterine, or cervical cancer and BM were identified. We identified those who received radiation therapy (RT) as whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to determine median overall survival (OS) and compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS:A total of 853 patients with BM were identified. The rate of BMs upon diagnosis was 0.4% (211/57,160) for patients with cervical cancer, 0.2% (498/243,785) for patients with uterine, and 0.2% (144/92,301) for ovarian malignancies. Only 30.4% had isolated BM, while 52.2% had lung metastasis. Approximately half of the patients (50.1%) received chemotherapy, while brain RT was administered to 324 (38%) patients. Among patients who received brain RT, only 60 (18.5%) had SRS, while 264 (81.5%) had WBRT. Patients who underwent SRS had a better survival (n=47, median OS=9 mo) than those who received WBRT (n=201, median OS=4.73 mo, P=0.018), or those who did not receive any brain RT (n=370, median OS=4.01 mo, P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of BM among patients with gynecologic malignancies is rare and associated with poor survival. For select patients, SRS may be associated with prolonged survival.
目的: 本研究的目的是在一个大型医院数据库中调查妇科恶性肿瘤脑转移 (BM) 患者的患病率、临床病理特征、处理和结局。 材料和方法: 访问国家癌症数据库 (NCDB)，确定卵巢、子宫或宫颈癌和 BM 患者。我们将接受放射治疗 (RT) 的患者确定为全脑放射治疗 (WBRT) 或立体定向放射外科 (SRS)。生成 Kaplan-Meier 曲线以确定中位总生存期 (OS)，并与 log-rank 检验进行比较。 结果: 共确定了 853 例 BM 患者。宫颈癌患者确诊时 BMs 率为 0.4% (211/57，160)，子宫患者为 0.2% (498/243，785)，0.2% (144/92，301) 卵巢恶性肿瘤。仅 30.4% 有孤立的 BM，而 52.2% 有肺转移。大约一半的患者 (50.1%) 接受化疗，而 324 (38%) 的患者接受脑 RT 治疗。在接受脑 RT 的患者中，只有 60 例 (18.5%) 患有 SRS，而 264 例 (81.5%) 患有 WBRT。接受 SRS 的患者生存期 (n = 47，中位 OS = 9 mo ) 优于接受 WBRT 的患者 (n = 201，中位 OS = 4.73 mo ，P = 0.018),或未接受任何脑 RT 的患者 (n = 370，中位 OS = 4.01 mo ，P = 0.007)。 结论: BM 在妇科恶性肿瘤患者中的发生率很低，且与生存率差相关。对于选定的患者，SRS 可能与生存期延长有关。
METHODS:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the differences in perioperative outcomes and immediate complication rates between laparoscopic myomectomy for submucous myomas and laparoscopic myomectomy for myomas in other locations. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:University-affiliated hospital in London. PATIENTS:A total of 350 patients with symptomatic uterine myomas underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Thirty-three of these were performed for submucous myomas (group 1), and 317 were for myomas in other uterine locations (group 2). INTERVENTIONS:Analysis of prospectively collected data on patient demographics, myoma characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and immediate complications. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Patient demographics, including age, body mass index, and parity, were similar in the 2 groups. No significant differences in myoma characteristics were seen between groups 1 and 2, including the mean dimension of largest myoma (7.1 vs 7.8 cm, respectively; p = .35), mean number of myomas removed (3.8 vs 4.1; p = .665), and mean mass of myomas removed (142.0 g vs 227.3 g; p = .186). There were also no significant between-group differences in any perioperative outcomes, including mean blood loss (226.8 mL vs 266.4 mL; p = .373), duration of surgery (103 minutes vs 113 minutes; p = .264), and duration of hospital stay (1.4 days vs 1.7 days; p = .057). No complications arose from laparoscopic resection of submucous myomas. CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic myomectomy for submucous myomas has similar perioperative outcomes and immediate complications as laparoscopic myomectomy for other myomas and can be considered for large or type 2 submucous myomas.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Laparoscopic myomectomy can be difficult when fibroids are large and numerous. This may result in extensive intraoperative bleeding and the need for a conversion to a laparotomy. Medical pretreatment prior to surgery might reduce these risks by decreasing fibroid size and vascularization of the fibroid. We compared pretreatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) vs gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) prior to laparoscopic myomectomy on several intra- and postoperative outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We performed a non-inferiority double-blind randomized controlled trial in nine hospitals in the Netherlands. Women were randomized between daily oral UPA for 12 weeks and single placebo injection or single intramuscular injection with leuprolide acetate and daily placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes were reduction of fibroid volume, suturing time, total surgery time and surgical ease. RESULTS:Thirty women received UPA and 25 women leuprolide acetate. Non-inferiority of UPA regarding intraoperative blood loss was not demonstrated. When pretreated with UPA, median intraoperative blood loss was statistically significantly higher (525 mL [348-1025] vs 280 mL[100-500]; P = 0.011) and suturing time of the first fibroid was statistically significantly longer (40 minutes [28-48] vs 22 minutes [14-33]; P = 0.003) compared with GnRHa. Pretreatment with UPA showed smaller reduction in fibroid volume preoperatively compared with GnRHa (-7.2% [-35.5 to 54.1] vs -38.4% [-71.5 to -19.3]; P = 0.001). Laparoscopic myomectomies in women pretreated with UPA were subjectively judged more difficult than in women pretreated with GnRHa. CONCLUSIONS:Non-inferiority of UPA in terms of intraoperative blood loss could not be established, possibly due to the preliminary termination of the study. Pretreatment with GnRHa was more favorable than UPA in terms of fibroid volume reduction, intraoperative blood loss, hemoglobin drop directly postoperatively, suturing time of the first fibroid and several subjective surgical ease parameters.
METHODS:AIMS:Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the Fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. In young women, the syndrome often presents with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas, leading to myomectomy or hysterectomy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence and mutational profiles of FH-negative leiomyomas from young patients, thus allowing for early identification and triage of syndromic patients for surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS:We evaluated 153 cases of uterine leiomyomas from women aged up to 30 years for loss of FH expression by tissue microarray (TMA)-based immunohistochemical staining. Mutational analysis of tumours with loss of FH was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 10 exons within the FH gene and subsequent Sanger sequencing. The status of promoter methylation was assessed by bisulphite sequencing. Loss of FH protein expression was detected in seven (4.6%) of 153 tested uterine leiomyomas from young patients. All FH-negative leiomyomas displayed staghorn vasculature and fibrillary/neurophil-like cytoplasm. We found that six (86%) of seven FH-negative tumours detected by immunohistochemistry harboured FH mutations, 50% of which contained germline mutations. In particular, the germline mutational rate in FH gene was 2.0% (three of 153 cases). Bisulphite sequencing analysis failed to detect promoter methylation in any of the seven tumours. CONCLUSION:Our study showed a relatively high rate of FH germline mutation in FH-negative uterine leiomyomas from patients aged up to 30 years. While genetic mutations confer protein expression loss, epigenetic regulation of the FH gene appears to be unrelated to this phenotype.