α,β-Thujone suppresses human placental choriocarcinoma cells via metabolic disruption.
- 作者列表："Lee JY","Park H","Lim W","Song G
:α,β-Thujone is a natural terpenoid found in many medicinal herbs, such as Artemisia absinthium (wormwood), that exhibits antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumorigenic effects. α,β-Thujone has numerous functions; it serves as a food ingredient, cosmetic additive, and medicinal remedy. Although the therapeutic properties of α,β-thujone were previously revealed, a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of its anti-cancer potential in choriocarcinoma is yet to be provided. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that α,β-thujone attenuates JEG3 and JAR choriocarcinoma cells through a caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, α,β-thujone was demonstrated to induce a global mitochondrial defect and ER stress in choriocarcinoma by causing mitochondrial depolarization, calcium overload, and metabolic alterations, thereby leading to energy deprivation, which eventually contributes to the increase in apoptosis of choriocarcinoma cells. Herein, we also revealed the synergistic anti-cancer activity of α,β-thujone via its sensitization effect on paclitaxel in choriocarcinoma cells. Altogether, our findings suggest that α,β-thujone is a novel, natural pharmacological compound that can be used to treat human placental choriocarcinoma.
: Α，β-thu酮是一种天然萜类化合物，存在于许多草药中，如苦艾 (艾草) 中，具有抗氧化、抗糖尿病和抗肿瘤作用。Α，β-thu酮具有多种功能; 它作为食品配料，化妆品添加剂和药物治疗。尽管 α，β-thujone 的治疗特性先前已被揭示，但其在绒癌中抗癌潜力的机制的全面描述尚未提供。据我们所知，本研究首次证明 α，β-thujone 通过 caspase 依赖性内在凋亡途径减弱 JEG3 和 JAR 绒癌细胞。此外，α，β-thujone 被证明通过引起线粒体去极化、钙超载和代谢改变，从而导致能量剥夺，在绒毛膜癌中诱导整体线粒体缺陷和 ER 应激。最终导致绒癌细胞凋亡增加。在此，我们还通过 α，β-thujone 对绒癌细胞紫杉醇的增敏作用揭示了其协同抗癌活性。总之，我们的研究结果表明，α，β-thujone 是一种新型的天然药理学化合物，可用于治疗人类胎盘绒毛膜癌。
METHODS:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the differences in perioperative outcomes and immediate complication rates between laparoscopic myomectomy for submucous myomas and laparoscopic myomectomy for myomas in other locations. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:University-affiliated hospital in London. PATIENTS:A total of 350 patients with symptomatic uterine myomas underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Thirty-three of these were performed for submucous myomas (group 1), and 317 were for myomas in other uterine locations (group 2). INTERVENTIONS:Analysis of prospectively collected data on patient demographics, myoma characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and immediate complications. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Patient demographics, including age, body mass index, and parity, were similar in the 2 groups. No significant differences in myoma characteristics were seen between groups 1 and 2, including the mean dimension of largest myoma (7.1 vs 7.8 cm, respectively; p = .35), mean number of myomas removed (3.8 vs 4.1; p = .665), and mean mass of myomas removed (142.0 g vs 227.3 g; p = .186). There were also no significant between-group differences in any perioperative outcomes, including mean blood loss (226.8 mL vs 266.4 mL; p = .373), duration of surgery (103 minutes vs 113 minutes; p = .264), and duration of hospital stay (1.4 days vs 1.7 days; p = .057). No complications arose from laparoscopic resection of submucous myomas. CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic myomectomy for submucous myomas has similar perioperative outcomes and immediate complications as laparoscopic myomectomy for other myomas and can be considered for large or type 2 submucous myomas.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Laparoscopic myomectomy can be difficult when fibroids are large and numerous. This may result in extensive intraoperative bleeding and the need for a conversion to a laparotomy. Medical pretreatment prior to surgery might reduce these risks by decreasing fibroid size and vascularization of the fibroid. We compared pretreatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) vs gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) prior to laparoscopic myomectomy on several intra- and postoperative outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We performed a non-inferiority double-blind randomized controlled trial in nine hospitals in the Netherlands. Women were randomized between daily oral UPA for 12 weeks and single placebo injection or single intramuscular injection with leuprolide acetate and daily placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes were reduction of fibroid volume, suturing time, total surgery time and surgical ease. RESULTS:Thirty women received UPA and 25 women leuprolide acetate. Non-inferiority of UPA regarding intraoperative blood loss was not demonstrated. When pretreated with UPA, median intraoperative blood loss was statistically significantly higher (525 mL [348-1025] vs 280 mL[100-500]; P = 0.011) and suturing time of the first fibroid was statistically significantly longer (40 minutes [28-48] vs 22 minutes [14-33]; P = 0.003) compared with GnRHa. Pretreatment with UPA showed smaller reduction in fibroid volume preoperatively compared with GnRHa (-7.2% [-35.5 to 54.1] vs -38.4% [-71.5 to -19.3]; P = 0.001). Laparoscopic myomectomies in women pretreated with UPA were subjectively judged more difficult than in women pretreated with GnRHa. CONCLUSIONS:Non-inferiority of UPA in terms of intraoperative blood loss could not be established, possibly due to the preliminary termination of the study. Pretreatment with GnRHa was more favorable than UPA in terms of fibroid volume reduction, intraoperative blood loss, hemoglobin drop directly postoperatively, suturing time of the first fibroid and several subjective surgical ease parameters.
METHODS:AIMS:Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the Fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. In young women, the syndrome often presents with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas, leading to myomectomy or hysterectomy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence and mutational profiles of FH-negative leiomyomas from young patients, thus allowing for early identification and triage of syndromic patients for surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS:We evaluated 153 cases of uterine leiomyomas from women aged up to 30 years for loss of FH expression by tissue microarray (TMA)-based immunohistochemical staining. Mutational analysis of tumours with loss of FH was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 10 exons within the FH gene and subsequent Sanger sequencing. The status of promoter methylation was assessed by bisulphite sequencing. Loss of FH protein expression was detected in seven (4.6%) of 153 tested uterine leiomyomas from young patients. All FH-negative leiomyomas displayed staghorn vasculature and fibrillary/neurophil-like cytoplasm. We found that six (86%) of seven FH-negative tumours detected by immunohistochemistry harboured FH mutations, 50% of which contained germline mutations. In particular, the germline mutational rate in FH gene was 2.0% (three of 153 cases). Bisulphite sequencing analysis failed to detect promoter methylation in any of the seven tumours. CONCLUSION:Our study showed a relatively high rate of FH germline mutation in FH-negative uterine leiomyomas from patients aged up to 30 years. While genetic mutations confer protein expression loss, epigenetic regulation of the FH gene appears to be unrelated to this phenotype.