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Dissecting the Dual Role of the Glial Scar and Scar-Forming Astrocytes in Spinal Cord Injury


  • 影响因子:4.22
  • DOI:10.3389/fncel.2020.00078
  • 作者列表:"Tuo Yang","Tuo Yang","YuJuan Dai","Gang Chen","Gang Chen","ShuSen Cui
  • 发表时间:2020-04-03

Recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) remains an unsolved problem. As a major component of the SCI lesion, the glial scar is primarily composed of scar-forming astrocytes and plays a crucial role in spinal cord regeneration. In recent years, it has become increasingly accepted that the glial scar plays a dual role in SCI recovery. However, the underlying mechanisms of this dual role are complex and need further clarification. This dual role also makes it difficult to manipulate the glial scar for therapeutic purposes. Here, we briefly discuss glial scar formation and some representative components associated with scar-forming astrocytes. Then, we analyze the dual role of the glial scar in a dynamic perspective with special attention to scar-forming astrocytes to explore the underlying mechanisms of this dual role. Finally, taking the dual role of the glial scar into account, we provide several pieces of advice on novel therapeutic strategies targeting the glial scar and scar-forming astrocytes.


脊髓损伤 (SCI) 的恢复仍然是一个尚未解决的问题。胶质瘢痕作为脊髓损伤的主要组成部分,主要由瘢痕形成的星形胶质细胞组成,在脊髓再生中起着至关重要的作用。近年来,胶质瘢痕在 SCI 恢复中起着双重作用的观点越来越被人们所接受。然而,这种双重作用的潜在机制很复杂,需要进一步澄清。这种双重作用也使得难以操纵用于治疗目的的胶质瘢痕。在此,我们简要讨论胶质瘢痕形成和一些与瘢痕形成星形胶质细胞相关的代表性成分。然后,我们从动态的角度分析了胶质瘢痕的双重作用,特别关注瘢痕形成的星形胶质细胞,以探讨这种双重作用的潜在机制。最后,考虑到胶质瘢痕的双重作用,我们提供了几条针对胶质瘢痕和瘢痕形成星形胶质细胞的新型治疗策略的建议。



来源期刊:Journal of Neurology
作者列表:["Zhang, Weihe","Cui, Lei","Zhang, Yeqiong","Wang, Wei","Wang, Renbin","Liu, Zunjing","Peng, Dantao","Jiao, Yujuan","Jiao, Jinsong"]

METHODS:Objective To clarify the existence of monophasic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and to identify predictive factors of long-term relapse-free form. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 289 Chinese patients with NMOSD. Selected subjects were divided into three groups based on the time interval between disease onset and the first relapse, if any. Clinical and imaging data were acquired from each patient’s medical record and evaluated as predictive factors for NMOSD. Results In total, none of the participating patients exhibited a monophasic form of NMOSD. Rather, 241 patients were selected for relapse tendency analysis; 143 (59.3%) patients relapsed within the first year, 66 (27.4%) during 1–5 years, and 32 (13.3%) beyond 5 years. Such onset symptoms as optic neuritis (ON) and non-longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) were independent prognostic factors for a prolonged remission interval.

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来源期刊:Journal of neurology
作者列表:["Bukhari W","Clarke L","O'Gorman C","Khalilidehkordi E","Arnett S","Prain KM","Woodhall M","Silvestrini R","Bundell CS","Ramanathan S","Abernethy D","Bhuta S","Blum S","Boggild M","Boundy K","Brew BJ","Brownlee W","Butzkueven H","Carroll WM","Chen C","Coulthard A","Dale RC","Das C","Dear K","Fabis-Pedrini MJ","Fulcher D","Gillis D","Hawke S","Heard R","Henderson APD","Heshmat S","Hodgkinson S","Jimenez-Sanchez S","Kilpatrick TJ","King J","Kneebone C","Kornberg AJ","Lechner-Scott J","Lin MW","Lynch C","Macdonnell RAL","Mason DF","McCombe PA","Pereira J","Pollard JD","Reddel SW","Shaw C","Spies J","Stankovich J","Sutton I","Vucic S","Walsh M","Wong RC","Yiu EM","Barnett MH","Kermode AG","Marriott MP","Parratt J","Slee M","Taylor BV","Willoughby E","Wilson RJ","Brilot F","Vincent A","Waters P","Broadley SA"]

METHODS::Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are an inflammation of the central nervous system associated with autoantibodies to aquaporin-4. We have undertaken a clinic-based survey of NMOSD in the Australia and New Zealand populations with the aim of characterising the clinical features and establishing the value of recently revised diagnostic criteria. Cases of possible NMOSD and age and sex-matched controls with multiple sclerosis (MS) were referred from centres across Australia and New Zealand. Cases were classified as NMOSD if they met the 2015 IPND criteria and remained as suspected NMOSD if they did not. Clinical and paraclinical data were compared across the three groups. NMOSD was confirmed in 75 cases and 89 had suspected NMOSD. There were 101 controls with MS. Age at onset, relapse rates and EDSS scores were significantly higher in NMOSD than in MS. Lesions and symptoms referable to the optic nerve were more common in NMOSD whereas brainstem, cerebellar and cerebral lesions were more common in MS. Longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions were seen in 48/71 (68%) of cases with NMOSD. Elevations of CSF, white cell count and protein were more common in NMOSD. We have confirmed a clinical pattern of NMOSD that has been seen in several geographical regions. We have demonstrated the clinical utility of the current diagnostic criteria. Distinct patterns of disease are evident in NMOSD and MS, but there remains a large number of patients with NMOSD-like features who do not meet the current diagnostic criteria for NMOSD and remain a diagnostic challenge.

作者列表:["Serena Silvestro","Placido Bramanti","Oriana Trubiani","Emanuela Mazzon"]

METHODS:Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic lesion that causes disability with temporary or permanent sensory and/or motor deficits. The pharmacological approach still in use for the treatment of SCI involves the employment of corticosteroid drugs. However, SCI remains a very complex disorder that needs future studies to find effective pharmacological treatments. SCI actives a strong inflammatory response that induces a loss of neurons followed by a cascade of events that lead to further spinal cord damage. Many experimental studies demonstrate the therapeutic effect of stem cells in SCI due to their capacity to differentiate into neuronal cells and by releasing neurotrophic factors. Therefore, they appear to be a valid strategy to use in the field of regenerative medicine. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of clinical trials, recorded in clinical trial.gov during 2005−2019, aimed to evaluate the use of stem cell-based therapy in SCI. The results available thus far show the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy in patients with SCI. However, future trials are needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of stem cell transplantation.

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