Molecular mechanisms of cell death induced in glioblastoma by experimental and antineoplastic drugs: New and old drugs induce apoptosis in glioblastoma.
- 作者列表："Contreras-Ochoa CO","López-Arellano ME","Roblero-Bartolon G","Díaz-Chávez J","Moreno-Banda GL","Reyna-Figueroa J","Munguía-Moreno JA","Madrid-Marina V","Lagunas-Martínez A
:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive astrocytic tumors; it is resistant to most chemotherapeutic agents currently available and is associated with a poor patient survival. Thus, the development of new anticancer compounds is urgently required. Herein, we studied the molecular mechanisms of cell death induced by the experimental drugs resveratrol and MG132 or the antineoplastic drugs cisplatin and etoposide on a human GBM cell line (D54) and on primary cultured mouse astrocytes (PCMAs). Caspases, Bcl-2, inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAP) family members, and p53 were identified as potential molecular targets for these drugs. All drugs had a cytotoxic effect on D54 cells and PCMAs, with a similar inhibitory concentration (IC50) after 24 h. However, MG132 and cisplatin were more effective to induce apoptosis and autophagy than resveratrol and etoposide. Cell death by apoptosis involved the activation of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9, increased lysosomal permeability, LC3 lipidation, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 fragmentation, and a differential expression of genes related with apoptosis and autophagy like Mcl-1, Survivin, Noxa, LC3, and Beclin. In addition, apoptosis activation was partially dependent on p53 activation. Since experimental and antineoplastic drugs yielded similar results, further work is required to justify their use in clinical protocols.
: 多形性胶质母细胞瘤 (GBM) 是最具侵袭性的星形细胞肿瘤之一; 它对目前可用的大多数化疗药物耐药，并且与患者生存率差相关。因此，迫切需要开发新的抗癌化合物。在此，我们研究了实验药物白藜芦醇和 MG132 或抗肿瘤药物顺铂和依托泊苷诱导人 GBM 细胞系 (D54) 细胞死亡的分子机制和在原代培养的小鼠星形胶质细胞 (PCMAs) 上。Caspases 、 Bcl-2 、凋亡抑制蛋白 (IAP) 家族成员和 p53 被确定为这些药物的潜在分子靶点。所有药物对 D54 细胞和 PCMAs 均有细胞毒作用，24 h 后抑制浓度 (IC50) 相似。然而，MG132 和顺铂比白藜芦醇和依托泊苷更有效地诱导细胞凋亡和自噬。细胞凋亡导致的细胞死亡涉及 caspases-3/7 、-8 和-9 的激活、溶酶体通透性增加、 LC3 脂化、聚 (ADP-核糖) 聚合酶 (PARP)-1 片段化，以及与凋亡和自噬相关的基因如 Mcl-1 、 Survivin 、 Noxa 、 LC3 和 Beclin 的差异表达。此外，细胞凋亡激活部分依赖于 p53 激活。由于实验性和抗肿瘤药物产生了相似的结果，需要进一步的工作来证明它们在临床方案中的使用。
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.