Prolonged Steroid Dependence in Adult Patients With Glioma.
- 作者列表："Mantilla EC Jr","Abramowitz J","Dan TU","Pan E
BACKGROUND/AIM:Prolonged use of glucocorticoids (GC) in glioma treatment can lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI) and subsequent steroid dependence due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This is challenging to diagnose due to its nonspecific clinical symptoms erroneously ascribed to treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors predisposing patients with gliomas to develop AI. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Charts in the neuro-oncology clinic from July 2018 to March 2019 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included >18 y/o with WHO Grade II-IV gliomas, and secondary AI. Demographic profile, tumor characteristics, and treatment profile were compared. RESULTS:The majority of patients were started on high dose dexamethasone at >8 mg daily, and were on dexamethasone for 4-8 months. The minimum dose needed to prevent symptoms was 0.5 mg to 2 mg daily. The majority received standard radiation doses ranging from 54-60 Gy. Most patients had radiation exposure to the HPA axis within the prescription isodose levels. CONCLUSION:Prolonged steroid dependency can result from chronic GC use in patients with glioma. Dose and duration of GC are risk factors for its development. Radiation exposure to the HPA axis may also be a contributing factor.
背景/目的: 胶质瘤治疗中长时间使用糖皮质激素 (GC) 可导致肾上腺功能不全 (AI) 和随后由于抑制下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺 (HPA) 而导致的类固醇依赖性轴。由于其非特异性临床症状错误地归因于治疗，这对诊断具有挑战性。本研究旨在评估胶质瘤患者发生 AI 的危险因素。 患者和方法: 回顾了 2018年7月至 2019年3月神经肿瘤门诊的图表。纳入标准包括> 18 y/o 的 WHO ⅱ-ⅳ 级胶质瘤和继发性 AI。比较人口统计学特征、肿瘤特征和治疗概况。 结果: 大多数患者开始服用大剂量地塞米松> 8 mg/d，并服用地塞米松 4-8 个月。预防症状所需的最小剂量为每日 0.5 mg ~ 2 mg。大多数接受标准辐射剂量范围为 54-60 Gy。大多数患者在处方等剂量水平内有 HPA 轴的辐射暴露。 结论: 胶质瘤患者长期使用 GC 可导致长期激素依赖。GC 的剂量和持续时间是其发展的危险因素。HPA 轴的辐射暴露也可能是一个促成因素。
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.