Different acute behaviors of pelvic incidence after long fusion to sacrum between elderly patients with severe and minor sagittal deformity: a retrospective radiographic study on 102 cases.
老年重度和轻度矢状位畸形患者长时间融合至骶骨后骨盆发生率的不同急性行为: 102 例回顾性影像学研究。
- 作者列表："Zhu W","Kong C","Zhang S","Wang Y","Wang W","Sun X","Lu S
PURPOSE:To compare the acute behaviors of pelvic incidence (PI) between elderly adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients with severe and minor sagittal deformity based on SRS-Schwab classification and to identify the mechanism of the variability in PI after long fusion to S1. METHODS:Patients aged 60 years or above with available radiographs were included. The following parameters were measured pre- and postoperatively: Thoracic kyphosis, thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK), lumbar lordosis (LL), PI, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), PI-LL and T1 pelvic angle (TPA). RESULTS:Forty-two patients were found with severe sagittal deformity were assigned to Group S, and 60 patients with minor sagittal deformity were assigned to Group M. Immediately after surgery, lumbar curve, TLK and PI-LL were obviously corrected in both groups, while LL, PI, SVA and TPA were significantly increased in Group S alone. PI was significantly increased from 42.6 ± 4.7° to 51.7 ± 6.0° in Group S (P = 0.002), but changed from 45.4 ± 10.2° to 46.3 ± 10.3° in Group M without statistical significance. Pearson correlation analysis showed changes in PI was significantly correlated with changes in SVA (r = 0.415, P = 0.011) in patients with PI increased more than 5°. CONCLUSION:PI spontaneously increases in elderly ASD patients with severe sagittal deformity after long fusion to sacrum, while is relative invariable in those with minor sagittal deformity. Variation in PI could be considered as a secondary change compensating for the spinal sagittal malalignment under long spinal fusion in elderly patients.
目的: 比较老年成人脊柱畸形 (ASD) 患者骨盆发生率 (PI) 的急性行为。基于 SRS-Schwab 分类的严重和轻微矢状面畸形患者，并确定长期融合到 s1 后 PI 变异性的机制。 方法: 纳入 60 岁或以上可获得 x 线片的患者。术前和术后测量以下参数: 胸椎后凸、胸腰椎后凸 (TLK) 、腰椎前凸 (LL) 、 PI 、骨盆倾斜、骶骨坡度、矢状纵轴 (SVA) 、 PI-LL 和 T1 骨盆角 (TPA)。 结果: 42 例重度矢状面畸形患者被分配到 S 组，60 例轻度矢状面畸形患者被分配到 M 组。术后即刻，两组患者的腰部曲线、 TLK 和 PI-LL 均明显矫正，而单用 S 组的 LL 、 PI 、 SVA 和 TPA 均明显升高。S 组 PI 由 42.6 ± 4.7 ° 显著升高至 51.7 ± 6.0 ° (p = 0.002),但 M 组由 45.4 ± 10.2 ° 变为 46.3 ± 10.3 °，无统计学意义。Pearson 相关分析显示，PI 升高超过 5 ° 的患者 PI 的变化与 SVA 的变化显著相关 (r = 0.415，p = 0.011)。 结论: 重度矢状面畸形的老年 ASD 患者骶骨长融合后 PI 自发增加，而轻度矢状面畸形患者 PI 相对不变。PI 的变化可被认为是老年患者长脊柱融合下脊柱矢状面错位的继发性变化补偿。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.