Emulsion Droplet Crystallinity Attenuates Short-Term Satiety in Healthy Adult Males: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Crossover, Acute Meal Study.
- 作者列表："Hamad S","Thilakarathna SH","Cuncins A","Brown M","Wright AJ
BACKGROUND:The influence of triacylglycerol (TAG) physical properties on satiety remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES:The objective was to investigate if and how TAG digestion and absorption, modulated only by differences in TAG crystallinity, would differentially affect short-term satiety in healthy men. METHODS:We tempered 500 mL 10% palm stearin oil-in-water emulsions such that the lipid droplets were either undercooled liquid (LE) or partially crystalline solid (SE). Fifteen healthy men (mean ± SD age: 27.5 ± 5.7 y; BMI: 24.1 ± 2.5 kg/m2; fasting TAG: 0.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L) consumed each beverage at two 6-h study visits separated by ≥6 d after an overnight fast, along with 1500 mg acetaminophen suspended in water. The participants characterized the emulsion sensory properties, completed satiety visual analog scale ratings, and had serial blood samples collected for 6-h analysis of plasma peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, and acetaminophen (for assessing gastric emptying). Repeated-measures ANOVAs and 2-tailed paired t tests were used to analyze the changes from baseline and incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values, respectively. RESULTS:With consumption of LE compared with SE, there was a 358% higher fullness (P = 0.015) and a 103% lower average appetite (P = 0.041) score, along with higher iAUC values for PYY (P = 0.011) and GLP-1 (P = 0.028) (103% and 66% higher, respectively), but not for ghrelin (P = 0.39), based on change from baseline values. Acetaminophen response trended toward significance (P = 0.08) and was 15% higher with LE. SE was rated as 44% thicker (P = 0.034) and 24% creamier (P = 0.05) than LE. CONCLUSIONS:The suppression of TAG digestion by the presence of partially crystalline lipid droplets blunted the appetite-suppressing effects of an oil-in-water emulsion.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03990246.
背景: 三酰甘油 (TAG) 物理性质对饱腹感的影响仍然知之甚少。 目的: 目的是研究仅由 TAG 结晶度差异调节的 TAG 消化和吸收是否以及如何差异影响健康男性的短期饱腹感。 方法: 我们对 500 mL 10% 棕榈硬脂水包油乳剂进行回火，使脂滴为过冷液体 (LE) 或部分结晶固体 (SE)。15 名健康男性 (平均 ± SD 年龄: 27.5 ± 5.7 y; BMI: 24.1 ± 2.5千克/m2; 空腹标签: 0.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L) 在两次 6 h 访视时饮用每种饮料，隔夜禁食后间隔 ≥ 6 d，以及悬浮在水中的 1500 mg 对乙酰氨基酚。参与者表征了乳液感官特性，完成了饱腹感视觉模拟量表评级，并收集了用于血浆肽 YY (PYY) 6 h 分析的系列血样,胰高血糖素样肽-1 (GLP-1) 、 ghrelin 、瘦素、葡萄糖依赖性促胰岛素多肽 (GIP) 、胰岛素和对乙酰氨基酚 (用于评估胃排空)。分别采用重复测量 ANOVAs 和双尾配对 t 检验分析基线和增量曲线下面积 (iAUC) 值的变化。 结果: 与 SE 相比，消耗 LE 的饱腹感高 358% (P = 0.015)，平均食欲低 103% (P = 0.041),随着 PYY (P = 0.011) 和 GLP-1 (P = 0.028) 的 iAUC 值较高 (分别高 103% 和 66%),但不是 ghrelin (P = 0.39)，基于与基线值的变化。对乙酰氨基酚反应趋向于显著性 (P = 0.08)，LE 高 15%。SE 被评为比 LE 厚 44% (P = 0.034) 和 24% (P = 0.05)。 结论: 部分结晶脂滴的存在对 TAG 消化的抑制减弱了水包油乳剂的食欲抑制作用。该试验在 clinicaltrials.gov 注册为 nct03990246。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.