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Habitual protein intake, protein distribution patterns and dietary sources in Irish adults with stratification by sex and age.

按性别和年龄分层的爱尔兰成人习惯性蛋白质摄入、蛋白质分布模式和膳食来源。

  • 影响因子:3.17
  • DOI:10.1111/jhn.12736
  • 作者列表:"Hone M","Nugent AP","Walton J","McNulty BA","Egan B
  • 发表时间:2020-01-30
Abstract

BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.

摘要

背景: 鉴于习惯性膳食蛋白质摄入、分布模式和膳食来源在年龄相关性肌肉质量和功能下降病因中的重要性,本研究调查了 18-90 岁爱尔兰成人中这些因素与性别和年龄的关系,包括全国成人营养调查 (NANS)。 方法: 总共有 1051 人 (男性,n = 523; 女性,n = 528) 进行了为期 4 天的半称重食物日记。除蛋白质分布评分 (PDS) 外,还测定了总、体质量相对摄入量和膳食蛋白质对总能量摄入量的百分比贡献,以及食物组的贡献,基于动物和植物的食物占总蛋白摄入量。 结果: 18 ~ 35 岁人群蛋白质总摄入量和相对摄入量 [平均值 (SD)] 最高 [96 (3) g/d,1.32 (0.40) g/kg/d],随着年龄的增长,蛋白质摄入量较低 (i。e.在 ≥ 65 岁的成年人中 [82 (22) g,1.15 (0.34) g/kg 日,P 均 <0.001]。与女性相比,男性年龄组之间蛋白质摄入量的差异更明显。所有年龄组的蛋白质分布均遵循偏斜模式 [早餐,15 (10) g; 午餐,30 (15) g; 晚餐,44 (17) g]。动物性食物是膳食中的主要蛋白质来源 [63% (11%) 对 37% (11%) 植物蛋白,P <0.001]。 结论: 蛋白质摄入量和达到最大餐后合成代谢阈值的进餐次数在年轻人中最高,随年龄增长而降低。对于主餐,早餐在所有年龄组中提供的蛋白质含量最低,可能代表了改善蛋白质分布的机会,而在老年人中,无论分布模式如何,增加达到合成代谢阈值的进餐次数可能更合适。

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影响因子:3.17
发表时间:2020-01-30
DOI:10.1111/jhn.12736
作者列表:["Hone M","Nugent AP","Walton J","McNulty BA","Egan B"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.76
发表时间:2020-01-30
DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00631.2019
作者列表:["Bonomi AG","Ten Hoor GA","De Morree HM","Plasqui G","Sartor F"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:3.76
发表时间:2020-01-31
DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00386.2018
作者列表:["Farr S","Stankovic B","Hoffman S","Masoudpoor H","Baker C","Taher J","Dean A","Anakk S","Adeli K"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.

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