表现为孤立性面部疼痛的偏头痛: 58 例前瞻性临床分析。
- 作者列表："Lambru G","Elias LA","Yakkaphan P","Renton T
BACKGROUND:Sparse evidence has detailed the clinical phenotype of migraine presenting as isolated facial pain. Objective and methods: This was a prospective audit, part of our multidisciplinary facial pain service evaluation, aiming to phenotype patients with migraine presenting as isolated facial pain who attended our service between 2013 and 2018. RESULTS:Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with migraine with isolated facial pain (F = 46, 79.3%; mean age: 49.0 years, ± 9.85). Sixty-six percent of patients met the criteria for episodic migraine. The pain was strictly unilateral in 79% and located over the maxillary region in 85% of patients. Associated cranial autonomic signs/symptoms were reported by 45% of our cohort. A percentage of 77% of patients was triptan responders. CONCLUSIONS:Migraine presenting as isolated facial pain is a rare but treatable condition with some distinct demographic and clinical characteristics. It is a diagnosis of exclusion that should be evaluated in specialised multidisciplinary facial pain clinics.
背景: 稀疏的证据详述了表现为孤立性面部疼痛的偏头痛的临床表型。目的和方法: 这是一项前瞻性审计，是我们多学科面部疼痛服务评估的一部分，旨在 2013 年至 2018 年期间参加我们服务的表现为孤立性面部疼痛的偏头痛表型患者。 结果: 58 例患者被诊断为伴有孤立性面部疼痛的偏头痛 (f = 79.3%; 平均年龄: 49.0 岁，± 9.85)。6% 的患者符合发作性偏头痛的标准。79% 的患者疼痛严格为单侧，85% 的患者疼痛位于上颌区域。我们 45% 的队列报告了相关的头颅自主神经体征/症状。77% 的患者是曲坦应答者。 结论: 表现为孤立性面部疼痛的偏头痛是一种罕见但可治疗的疾病，具有一些独特的人口统计学和临床特征。这是一个排除的诊断，应该在专业的多学科面部疼痛诊所进行评估。
METHODS::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms of neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system. Recently, herbal medicines are clinically effective against MS as the current disease-modifying drugs have limited effectiveness. Hence, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OB) in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced cognitive deficits in the male rats. Further, the effect of OB (50, 100 and 200 μL/kg) was evaluated on EB-induced neuroinflammation, astrogliosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) of the animals. The EB was injected through bilateral intracerebroventricular route into hippocampus to induce MS-like manifestations in the rats. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and Ursolic acid (UA) significantly reduced the EB-induced cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and Y-maze test paradigms. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced neuroinflammation in terms of increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in the rat PFC. Further, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced astrogliosis in terms of increase in the levels of GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) and Iba-1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1) in the rat PFC. In addition, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced decrease in the mitochondrial function, integrity, respiratory control rate and ADP/O in the PFC of the rodents. Moreover, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly reduced the EB-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the PFC of the rat. Hence, it can be presumed that OB could be a potential alternative drug candidate in the pharmacotherapy of MS.
METHODS::Sleep fragmentation is an increase in sleep-wake transitions without an overall decrease in total sleep time. Sleep fragmentation is well documented during acute and chronic hospitalization and can result in delirium and memory problems in children. Sleep fragmentation is also often noted in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is unclear how sleep fragmentation independent of disease affects brain development and function. We hypothesized that acute sleep fragmentation during the neonatal period in otherwise healthy animals would result in neuroinflammation and would be associated with abnormalities in cognitive development. The orbital shaker method was used to fragment sleep for 72 h in postnatal day 3 New Zealand white rabbit kits (fragmentation group). To control for maternal separation, the sham group was separated from the dam and maintained in the same conditions without undergoing sleep fragmentation. A naïve control group remained with the dam. Kits underwent behavioral testing with novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation T-maze tests at 2-3 weeks post-fragmentation and were sacrificed 3-50 days after fragmentation. Sleep fragmentation resulted in acute and chronic changes in microglial morphology in the hippocampus and cortex, and regional differences in mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at 3, 7 and 50 days post-fragmentation. Impaired novel object recognition and a longer latency in T-maze task completion were noted in the fragmented kits. This was in spite of normalization of sleep architecture noted at 2 months of age in these kits. The results indicate that transient neonatal sleep fragmentation results in short-term and long-term immune alterations in the brain, along with diminished performance in cognitive tasks long-term.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a recently approved therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. To date, there is a poor understanding of the mechanism of action and lack of in vivo biomarkers. We propose a method for investigating the in vivo stimulation effects using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI and present the brain activation pattern associated with ANT DBS. METHODS:Two patients undergoing ANT DBS for epilepsy underwent BOLD MRI using a block design after the DBS was programmed to alternate ON/OFF in 30 second blocks. The scanner was triggered utilizing surface electrophysiological recording to detect the DBS cycle. Nine total runs were obtained and were analyzed using a general linear model. RESULTS:Active ANT stimulation produced activation within several areas of the brain, including the thalamus, bilateral anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, striatum, and right angular gyrus. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing block-design BOLD MRI, we were able to show widespread activation resulting from ANT DBS. Overlap with multiple areas of both the default mode and limbic networks was shown suggesting that these nodes may modulate the effect of seizure control with ANT DBS.