Coexpression enrichment analysis at the single-cell level reveals convergent defects in neural progenitor cells and their cell-type transitions in neurodevelopmental disorders.
- 作者列表："Pang K","Wang L","Wang W","Zhou J","Cheng C","Han K","Zoghbi HY","Liu Z
:A large number of genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but their contributions to NDD pathology are difficult to decipher without understanding their diverse roles in different brain cell types. Here, we integrated NDD genetics with single-cell RNA sequencing data to assess coexpression enrichment patterns of various NDD gene sets. We identified mid-fetal cortical neural progenitor cell development, more specifically, the ventricular radial glia-to-intermediate progenitor cell transition at gestational week 10, as a key point of convergence in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy. Integrated Gene Ontology-based analysis further revealed that ASD genes activate neural differentiation and inhibit cell cycle during the transition, whereas epilepsy genes function as downstream effectors in the same processes, offering one possible explanation for the high comorbidity rate of the two disorders. This approach provides a framework for investigating the cell-type-specific pathophysiology of NDDs.
: 大量基因与神经发育障碍 (NDDs) 有关，但如果不了解它们在不同脑细胞类型中的不同作用，它们对 NDD 病理学的贡献很难破译。在这里，我们整合了 NDD 遗传学和单细胞 RNA 测序数据，以评估各种 NDD 基因集的共表达富集模式。我们确定了中胎儿皮质神经祖细胞的发育，更具体地说，在妊娠第 10 周心室放射状胶质细胞到中间祖细胞的转变,作为自闭症谱系障碍 (ASD) 和癫痫融合的关键点。基于整合基因本体论的分析进一步发现，ASD 基因在转变过程中激活神经分化并抑制细胞周期，而癫痫基因在相同的过程中作为下游效应因子发挥作用,为两种疾病的高共病率提供一种可能的解释。该方法为研究 NDDs 的细胞类型特异性病理生理学提供了框架。
METHODS::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms of neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system. Recently, herbal medicines are clinically effective against MS as the current disease-modifying drugs have limited effectiveness. Hence, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OB) in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced cognitive deficits in the male rats. Further, the effect of OB (50, 100 and 200 μL/kg) was evaluated on EB-induced neuroinflammation, astrogliosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) of the animals. The EB was injected through bilateral intracerebroventricular route into hippocampus to induce MS-like manifestations in the rats. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and Ursolic acid (UA) significantly reduced the EB-induced cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and Y-maze test paradigms. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced neuroinflammation in terms of increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in the rat PFC. Further, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced astrogliosis in terms of increase in the levels of GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) and Iba-1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1) in the rat PFC. In addition, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced decrease in the mitochondrial function, integrity, respiratory control rate and ADP/O in the PFC of the rodents. Moreover, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly reduced the EB-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the PFC of the rat. Hence, it can be presumed that OB could be a potential alternative drug candidate in the pharmacotherapy of MS.
METHODS::Sleep fragmentation is an increase in sleep-wake transitions without an overall decrease in total sleep time. Sleep fragmentation is well documented during acute and chronic hospitalization and can result in delirium and memory problems in children. Sleep fragmentation is also often noted in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is unclear how sleep fragmentation independent of disease affects brain development and function. We hypothesized that acute sleep fragmentation during the neonatal period in otherwise healthy animals would result in neuroinflammation and would be associated with abnormalities in cognitive development. The orbital shaker method was used to fragment sleep for 72 h in postnatal day 3 New Zealand white rabbit kits (fragmentation group). To control for maternal separation, the sham group was separated from the dam and maintained in the same conditions without undergoing sleep fragmentation. A naïve control group remained with the dam. Kits underwent behavioral testing with novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation T-maze tests at 2-3 weeks post-fragmentation and were sacrificed 3-50 days after fragmentation. Sleep fragmentation resulted in acute and chronic changes in microglial morphology in the hippocampus and cortex, and regional differences in mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at 3, 7 and 50 days post-fragmentation. Impaired novel object recognition and a longer latency in T-maze task completion were noted in the fragmented kits. This was in spite of normalization of sleep architecture noted at 2 months of age in these kits. The results indicate that transient neonatal sleep fragmentation results in short-term and long-term immune alterations in the brain, along with diminished performance in cognitive tasks long-term.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a recently approved therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. To date, there is a poor understanding of the mechanism of action and lack of in vivo biomarkers. We propose a method for investigating the in vivo stimulation effects using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI and present the brain activation pattern associated with ANT DBS. METHODS:Two patients undergoing ANT DBS for epilepsy underwent BOLD MRI using a block design after the DBS was programmed to alternate ON/OFF in 30 second blocks. The scanner was triggered utilizing surface electrophysiological recording to detect the DBS cycle. Nine total runs were obtained and were analyzed using a general linear model. RESULTS:Active ANT stimulation produced activation within several areas of the brain, including the thalamus, bilateral anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, striatum, and right angular gyrus. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing block-design BOLD MRI, we were able to show widespread activation resulting from ANT DBS. Overlap with multiple areas of both the default mode and limbic networks was shown suggesting that these nodes may modulate the effect of seizure control with ANT DBS.