Comparative study between bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell and their conditioned medium in the treatment of rat model of Parkinsonism.
- 作者列表："Abdelwahab S","Elsebay SAG","Fouli Gaber M","Abdel-Hafez SMN
:Parkinsonism is one of the most common aging neurodegenerative disorders. This study aims to compare the therapeutic effect of stem cell versus its conditioned medium in the Parkinsonism model. Parkinsonism was induced by daily subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg/kg of rotenone dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide for 28 days. Fifty rats were divided randomly into five groups: control, dimethyl sulfoxide, Parkinsonism, stem cell-treated, and conditioned medium-treated groups. Midbrain specimens were obtained for histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies. Lewy bodies were observed in the Parkinsonism group in the dopaminergic neuron and neuropil as well. Almost all of the pathological changes were clearly ameliorated in both stem cell- and conditioned medium-treated groups as confirmed by biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical (anti-nestin, anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein, and anti-α synuclein) studies. However, the conditioned medium showed more superior therapeutic effect establishing nearly the normal histological architecture of substantia nigra. These results may pave the future for using stem cell-conditioned medium as a more convenient and effective adjuvant therapy in Parkinsonism and other neurodegenerative disorders.
: 帕金森综合征是最常见的衰老性神经退行性疾病之一。本研究旨在比较干细胞与其条件培养基在帕金森综合征模型中的治疗效果。每日皮下注射 0.5 mg/kg 鱼藤酮溶于二甲基亚砜，连续 28 d 诱发帕金森病。将 50 只大鼠随机分为 5 组: 对照组、二甲基亚砜组、帕金森综合征组、干细胞治疗组和条件培养液治疗组。获得中脑标本进行组织学、免疫组化和生化研究。帕金森综合征组可见路易小体，多巴胺能神经元和神经 pil。几乎所有的病理改变明显减轻在这两种干细胞条件培养液组证实生化，组织学和免疫组织化学 (抗巢蛋白 (nestin),抗胶质纤维酸性蛋白，和抗 α 突触核蛋白) 研究。然而，条件培养基显示出更优越的治疗效果，建立了接近正常的黑质组织学结构。这些结果可能为使用干细胞条件培养基作为帕金森综合征和其他神经退行性疾病更方便有效的辅助治疗铺平了未来。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.