HLY78 Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis via the LRP6/GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats
HLY78 通过 LRP6/gsk3 β/β-Catenin 信号通路减轻大鼠蛛网膜下腔出血后神经细胞凋亡
- 作者列表："Luo, Xu","Li, Lina","Xu, Weilin","Cheng, Yuan","Xie, Zongyi
Neuronal apoptosis is one of the essential mechanisms of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Recently, HLY78 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in tumor cells and embryonic cells caused by carbon ion radiation through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This study was designed to explore the anti-apoptotic role of HLY78 in experimental SAH. The results demonstrated that HLY78 attenuated neuronal apoptosis and the neurological deficits after SAH through the activation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), which subsequently increased the level of phosphorylated glycogen synthesis kinase 3 beta (p-GSK3β) (Ser9), β-catenin, and Bcl-2, accompanied by a decrease of p-β-catenin, Bax, and cleaved caspase 3. An LRP6 small-interfering ribonucleic acid reversed the effects of HLY78. In conclusion, HLY78 attenuates neuronal apoptosis and improves neurological deficits through the LRP6/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway after SAH in rats. HLY78 is a promising therapeutic agent to attenuate early brain injury after SAH.
神经元凋亡是蛛网膜下腔出血 (SAH) 后早期脑损伤的重要机制之一。最近，HLY78 已被证明通过激活 Wnt/β-catenin 通路抑制碳离子辐射引起的肿瘤细胞和胚胎细胞凋亡。本研究旨在探讨 HLY78 在实验性 SAH 中的抗凋亡作用。结果表明，HLY78 通过激活低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白 6 (LRP6)，减轻 SAH 后神经细胞凋亡和神经功能缺损随后增加磷酸化糖原合成激酶 3 β (p-gsk3 β) (Ser9) 、 β-catenin 和 Bcl-2 的水平，伴随 p-β-catenin 、 Bax 、并裂解 caspase 3。一种 LRP6 小干扰核糖核酸逆转了 hly78 的作用。总之，HLY78 通过 LRP6/gsk3 β/β-catenin 信号通路减轻大鼠 SAH 后神经细胞凋亡，改善神经功能缺损。HLY78 是一种很有前途的治疗药物，可减轻 SAH 后早期脑损伤。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:People with stroke are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. The modifiable factors associated with post-stroke physical activity levels need to be identified to develop targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the factors at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation that are associated with physical activity levels at 3 months following discharge. DESIGN:This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS:Sixty-four people with stroke completed baseline assessments at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and 55 completed the follow-up 3 months later. The candidate factors (i.e. gait speed, balance, strength, cognition, mood and motivation) were measured at discharge. The primary outcome measure at follow-up was walking related activity (measured by wrist-worn accelerometer). Secondary outcome measures were physical activity participation (Activity Card Sort) and intensity of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short 7 days). Adjusted separate multivariable linear regression models or proportional odds regression models were used to evaluate the associations between candidate factors and physical activity. RESULTS:Gait speed and balance were associated with all aspects of physical activity. Higher level of intrinsic motivation was also associated with higher physical activity participation. Anxiety demonstrated a significant non-linear relationship with physical activity participation. LIMITATIONS:Inclusion of fatigue and individual muscle strength could have provided further insights into associations with steps per day. CONCLUSION:The results demonstrated that better physical function at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation was associated with future increased levels of physical activity. Additionally, higher levels of motivation impacted on increased physical activity participation. The influence of anxiety on physical activity participation requires further exploration. Mixed-method study designs can be utilized to further understand the factors associated with post-stroke physical activity.
METHODS:Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by initial transient cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion. Various pathophysiological processes are involved in brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R. There are few studies on dynamic metabolic process after cerebral I/R. The present study was to observe dynamic alteration of brain injury, functional recovery, and metabolites after cerebral I/R in rats and discover potential metabolic markers. The cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, following reperfusion in rats. The results of cerebral infarction area, cerebral edema, and behavior test showed that there were dynamic changes in brain injury and functional recovery at different periods after cerebral I/R. Further analysis showed that the brain injury was severe on the first day of cerebral I/R, and there was a significant functional recovery from the 7th day of cerebral I/R, followed by an aggravation trend of brain injury from the days 7 to 28. Furthermore, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging analysis showed that the expression of ATP, glucose, and citric acid on 7th day was the highest during cerebral I/R, which indicated that energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation played important roles during cerebral I/R. In addition, the untargeted metabolomic results showed that the level of isocitric acid, the ratio of oxyglutaric acid/glutamic acid, and the level of pyruvic acid associated with the TCA cycle were also the highest on the 7th day during cerebral I/R, which indicated that the transient spontaneous recovery of ischemic brain on the 7th day after ischemia-reperfusion might be related to oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism in the brain in this period. In conclusion, the results suggest that some small molecule metabolites participate in the brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R, which is of great significance to the development of therapeutic drugs and diagnostic markers.
METHODS:The aims of this study were to study the effects of miR-2 on cerebral ischemia–reperfusion rats and to explore its further mechanism. Rats were assigned into sham, model, miR-22 control and miR-22 groups. Observation of neurological behaviors at 24 h after operation found that neurological functions were severely damaged in the model and miR-22 control groups and these damages were improved by miR-22. RT-PCR indicated that miR-22 mRNA level in the brain tissue was significantly decreased in the model and miR-22 control groups, but increased in the miR-22 group. TTC staining showed increased percentage of cerebral infarction volume in the model and miR-22 control groups and this increase was reduced by miR-22. Immunohistochemistry showed increased densities of CD34^+ and VEGF^+ microvessels in the cortex in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. ELISA showed increased serum VEGF and Ang-1 levels in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were also further increased in the miR-22 group. Western blot analysis showed increased phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt in brain tissue in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. Administration of LY294002, a specific PI3K pathway inhibitor, significantly reversed all the effects of miR-22 on rats in the model group. miR-22 exerts its neuroprotective and angiogenic functions via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, at least partly, in rats under cerebral ischemia–reperfusion.