Inorganic Nitrate Promotes Glucose Uptake and Oxidative Catabolism in White Adipose Tissue through the XOR Catalyzed Nitric Oxide Pathway.
无机硝酸盐通过 XOR 催化的一氧化氮途径促进白色脂肪组织的葡萄糖摄取和氧化分解代谢。
- 作者列表："McNally BD","Moran A","Watt NT","Ashmore T","Whitehead A","Murfitt SA","Kearney MT","Cubbon RM","Murray AJ","Griffin JL","Roberts LD
:An ageing global population combined with sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy diets has contributed to an increasing incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. These metabolic disorders are associated with perturbations to nitric oxide (NO) signaling and impaired glucose metabolism. Dietary inorganic nitrate, found in high concentration in green leafy vegetables, can be converted to NO in vivo and demonstrates anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties in rodents. Alongside tissues including skeletal muscle and liver, white adipose tissue is also an important physiological site of glucose disposal. However, the distinct molecular mechanisms governing the effect of nitrate on adipose tissue glucose metabolism, and the contribution of this tissue to the glucose tolerant phenotype, remain to be determined. Using a metabolomic and stable-isotope labeling approach, combined with transcriptional analysis, we found that nitrate increases glucose uptake and oxidative catabolism in primary adipocytes and white adipose tissue of nitrate-treated rats. Mechanistically, we determine that nitrate induces these phenotypic changes in primary adipocytes through the xanthine oxidoreductase catalysed reduction of nitrate to nitric oxide and independently of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α. The nitrate-mediated enhancement of glucose uptake and catabolism in white adipose tissue may be a key contributor to the anti-diabetic effects of this anion.
: 全球人口老龄化加上久坐不动的生活方式和不健康的饮食导致了肥胖和 2 型糖尿病发病率的增加。这些代谢紊乱与一氧化氮 (NO) 信号的扰动和葡萄糖代谢受损有关。膳食无机硝酸盐，在绿叶蔬菜中发现高浓度，可以在体内转化为 NO，并在啮齿类动物中表现出抗糖尿病和抗肥胖的特性。与包括骨骼肌和肝脏在内的组织并列，白色脂肪组织也是葡萄糖处置的重要生理部位。然而，控制硝酸盐对脂肪组织糖代谢影响的独特分子机制，以及该组织对糖耐量表型的贡献仍有待确定。使用代谢组学和稳定同位素标记方法，结合转录分析，我们发现硝酸盐增加硝酸盐处理大鼠原代脂肪细胞和白色脂肪组织的葡萄糖摄取和氧化分解代谢。从机制上来说，我们确定硝酸盐通过黄嘌呤氧化还原酶催化硝酸盐还原为一氧化氮并独立于过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体 α 诱导原代脂肪细胞的这些表型变化。硝酸盐介导的白色脂肪组织葡萄糖摄取和分解代谢的增强可能是该阴离子抗糖尿病作用的关键因素。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.