A 3-day dietary manipulation affects muscle glycogen and results in modifications of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise when hyperglycaemic.
- 作者列表："Malone JJ","MacLaren DPM","Campbell IT","Hulton AT
PURPOSE:The effect of hyperglycaemia on exercise with low and elevated muscle glycogen on glucose utilization (GUR), carbohydrate and fat oxidation, hormonal and metabolite responses, as well as rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were explored. METHODS:Five healthy trained males were exercised for 90 min at 70% V̇O2max in two trials, while glucose was infused intravenously at rates to "clamp" blood glucose at 12 mM. On one occasion, participants were 'loaded' with carbohydrate (CHO-L), whilst on a separate occasion, participants were glycogen depleted (CHO-D). Prior exercise and dietary manipulations produced the 'loaded' and 'depleted' states. RESULTS:The CHO-L and CHO-D conditions resulted in muscle glycogen concentrations of 377 and 159 mmol/g dw, respectively. Hyperglycaemia elevated plasma insulin concentrations with higher levels for CHO-L than for CHO-D (P < 0.01). Conversely, CHO-D elevated plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline higher than CHO-L (P < 0.05). Plasma fat metabolites (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol) were higher under CHO-D than CHO-L (P < 0.01). The resultant was that the rates of total carbohydrate and fat oxidation were elevated and depressed for loaded CHO-L vs CHO-D respectively (P < 0.01), although no difference was found for GUR (P > 0.05). The RPE over the exercise period was higher for CHO-D than CHO-L (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Hyperglycaemia during exercise, when muscle glycogen is reduced, attenuates insulin but promotes catecholamines and fat metabolites. The effect is a subsequent elevation of fat oxidation, a reduction in CHO oxidation without a concomitant increase in GUR, and an increase in RPE.
目的: 高血糖对肌糖原低下和升高的运动对葡萄糖利用 (GUR) 、碳水化合物和脂肪氧化、激素和代谢物反应的影响, 以及自觉用力评分 (RPE) 进行了探讨。 方法: 在两项试验中，5 名健康训练男性在 70% v O2max 下运动 90 min，同时以 12 mM “钳夹” 血糖的速率静脉输注葡萄糖。有一次，参与者被碳水化合物 (CHO-L) “填充”，而在另一个场合，参与者糖原耗尽 (CHO-D)。先前的运动和饮食操作产生了 'loaded' 和 'depleed' 状态。 结果: CHO-L 和 CHO-D 条件下肌糖原浓度分别为 377 和 159 mmol/g dw。高血糖升高血浆胰岛素浓度，CHO-L 水平高于 CHO-D (p
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.