The regulatory effect of VEGF-Ax on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells angioblastic differentiation and its pro-angiogenic ability.
- 作者列表："Li J","Li Z","Wang C","Li Z","Xu H","Hu Y","Tan Z","Zhang F","Liu C","Yang M","Wang Y","Jin Y","Peng Z","Biswas S","Zhu L
:Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), which plays a key role in angiogenesis, is composed of many isoforms. Distinct VEGFA isoforms are generated by alternative splicing of VEGFA mRNA and named as VEGFxxx, where xxx represents the number of amino acids present in the final protein sequence. These isoforms have opponent effects in pro- and anti-angiogenic. VEGF-Ax, an additional isoform containing a 22-amino-acid extension in the COOH terminus, arising from VEGFA mRNA programmed translational readthrough (PTR). The function of VEGF-Ax is not clear, especially the conclusion that VEGF-Ax regulates angiogenesis is contradictory. Thus, we investigated the effect of VEGF-Ax on differentiation and angiogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). The results showed that VEGF-Ax could promote the proliferation and migration of BMMSCs, stimulate the differentiation of BMMSCs into endothelial cells (EC)-like cells, and protect BMMSCs from endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis.
: 血管内皮生长因子 A (VEGFA) 是由许多亚型组成的，在血管生成中起关键作用。不同的 VEGFA 亚型是通过 VEGFA mRNA 的选择性剪接产生的，命名为 VEGFxxx，其中 xxx 代表最终蛋白质序列中存在的氨基酸数量。这些亚型在促血管生成和抗血管生成方面具有相反作用。VEGF-Ax，一种在 COOH 端含有 22 个氨基酸延伸的额外亚型，由 VEGFA mRNA 程序性翻译阅读 (PTR) 产生。VEGF-Ax 的功能尚不清楚，尤其是 VEGF-Ax 调控血管生成的结论是矛盾的。因此，我们研究了 VEGF-Ax 对大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞 (BMMSCs) 分化和血管生成的影响。结果表明，VEGF-Ax 可促进 BMMSCs 的增殖和迁移，刺激 BMMSCs 向内皮细胞 (EC) 样细胞分化, 并保护 BMMSCs 免受内质网应激 (ERS) 诱导的细胞凋亡。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.