Transforming growth factor-β plasma levels and its role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
- 作者列表："Duque T","Gromicho M","Pronto-Laborinho AC","de Carvalho M
:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle paralysis. Respiratory complications are the main cause of death in ALS. For this reason, initial respiratory status and its decline over disease progression are strong independent predictors of survival. Riluzole, a glutamatergic neurotransmission inhibitor, is the only drug that has shown to extend survival. Therefore, both novel molecular biomarkers and treatment strategies are needed. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family cytokines are important regulators of cell fate affecting both neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. Several studies demonstrate that TGF-β signalling protects neurons from glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, a recognized mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS. Recent studies report dysregulations of the TGF-β system as a common feature of neurodegenerative disorders. The upregulation of this system has been linked with ALS progression. We have quantified TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 serum levels in 23 ALS patients and 12 healthy controls, our preliminary results support the hypothesis that TGF-β3 levels can be a marker disease severity ALS. Further results are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
: 肌萎缩侧索硬化 (ALS) 是一种以进行性肌肉麻痹为特征的神经退行性疾病。呼吸系统并发症是 ALS 患者死亡的主要原因。因此，初始呼吸状态及其随疾病进展而下降是生存的强独立预测因子。利鲁唑是一种谷氨酸能神经传递抑制剂，是唯一被证明可以延长生存期的药物。因此，既需要新的分子生物标志物，也需要治疗策略。转化生长因子-β (TGF-β) 家族细胞因子是影响神经发生和神经退行性病变的细胞命运的重要调节因子。一些研究表明，TGF-β 信号保护神经元免受谷氨酸介导的兴奋性毒性，这是一种公认的各种神经退行性疾病如 ALS 发病机制的基础。最近的研究报道 TGF-β 系统的失调是神经退行性疾病的一个共同特征。该系统的上调与 ALS 进展有关。我们对 23 例 ALS 患者和 12 例健康对照者的 tgf-β 1 、 tgf-β 2 和 tgf-β3 血清水平进行了定量，我们的初步结果支持 tgf-β3 水平可能是 ALS 疾病严重程度的标志的假设。进一步的结果是必要的，以证实这一假设。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.