Ileal transposition; a non-restrictive bariatric surgical procedure that reduces body fat and increases ingestion-related energy expenditure.
- 作者列表："Somogyi E","Hoornenborg CW","Bruggink JE","Nyakas C","van Beek AP","van Dijk G
BACKGROUND:Ileal Transposition (IT) was developed as a model to study body weight reduction without the restrictive or malabsorptive aspects of other bariatric surgeries, but the exact mechanisms of the alterations in body weight after IT are not completely understood OBJECTIVE: To provide a detailed description of the surgical procedure of IT, and describe its effect on energy balance parameters. METHODS:Adult male Lewis rats underwent either IT (IT+) or sham (IT-) surgery. Following surgery body weight and energy intake were monitored. After attaining weight stability (>30 days), energy expenditure and its components were assessed using indirect calorimetry at a day of fasting, limited intake, and ad libitum intake. At the end of the study body composition analysis was performed. RESULTS:IT+ resulted in transiently reduced energy intake, increased ingestion-related energy expenditure (IEE) and decreased body and adipose tissue weight when compared to IT-. At weight stability, neither energy budget (i.e., energy intake - energy expenditure), nor energy efficiency was different in IT+ rats compared to IT-. CONCLUSION:Our data show that the primary cause of weight reduction following IT+ is a transient reduction in energy intake. If the increased IEE is related to a higher level of satiety, compensatory feeding to bridge body weight difference between IT+ and IT- rats is not likely to occur.
背景: 回肠转位 (IT) 是作为研究体重减少的模型而开发的，没有其他减肥手术的限制性或吸收不良方面。但其后体重变化的确切机制尚不完全清楚目的: 详细描述其手术过程,并描述其对能量平衡参数的影响。 方法: 成年雄性 Lewis 大鼠接受 IT (IT +) 或假 (IT-) 手术。术后监测体重和能量摄入。达到体重稳定后 (>30 天)，在禁食、限制摄入和自由摄入的一天使用间接测热法评估能量消耗及其组分。在研究结束时进行身体成分分析。 结果: 与 IT-相比，IT + 导致短暂的能量摄入减少，摄入相关能量消耗 (IEE) 增加，身体和脂肪组织重量降低。在体重稳定时，IT + 大鼠的能量预算 (即能量摄入-能量消耗) 和能量效率都与 IT-不同。 结论: 我们的数据显示 IT + 后体重减少的主要原因是能量摄入的短暂减少。如果增加的 IEE 与较高水平的饱腹感有关，代偿喂养使 IT + 和 IT-大鼠之间的体重差异发生的可能性不大。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.