Natural Magnesium-Enriched Deep-Sea Water Improves Insulin Resistance and the Lipid Profile of Prediabetic Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded Crossover Trial.
- 作者列表："Ham JY","Shon YH
:Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the antidiabetic effect of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) works through the suppression of hyperglycemia and improvement of glucose tolerance. Based on these promising results, we conducted an eight week randomized, double-blinded crossover trial of the effects of BDSW in prediabetic adults. The subjects consumed 440 mL of BDSW (hardness 4000) per day, and maintained an otherwise normal lifestyle and diet throughout. Efficacy assessments were made by measuring fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid metabolism indicators, and physical metrics, along with safety assessments. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values of the BDSW group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group after eight weeks of BDSW ingestion. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were also significantly decreased in the BDSW group after eight weeks of BDSW ingestion compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically and clinically meaningful changes in adverse events, physical examination, laboratory medicine examination, or vital signs of the BDSW intake group. These results suggested that the intake of BDSW in prediabetic adults can improve glucose metabolism and lipid profiles and is safe for human consumption.
: 先前的体外和体内研究表明，平衡深海水 (BDSW) 的抗糖尿病作用是通过抑制高血糖和改善糖耐量来起作用的。基于这些有希望的结果，我们进行了一项为期 8 周的 BDSW 对糖尿病前期成人影响的随机、双盲交叉试验。受试者每天消耗 440 mL BDSW (硬度 4000)，并在整个过程中保持正常的生活方式和饮食。通过测定空腹血糖、餐后血糖、空腹胰岛素、稳态模型评估胰岛素抵抗 (HOMA-IR) 、 c肽、糖化血红蛋白、脂代谢指标进行疗效评估, 和物理指标，以及安全评估。BDSW 组的空腹胰岛素和 HOMA-IR 值在 BDSW 摄入八周后显著低于安慰剂组。与安慰剂组相比，BDSW 组在 BDSW 摄入 8 周后总胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇也显著降低。BDSW 摄入组的不良事件、体格检查、实验室检查或生命体征无统计学和临床意义的变化。这些结果表明，糖尿病前期成人摄入 BDSW 可以改善糖代谢和血脂谱，并且对人类是安全的。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.