- 作者列表："Jiao P","Yuan Y","Zhang M","Sun Y","Wei C","Xie X","Zhang Y","Wang S","Chen Z","Wang X
:The aim of the study was to understand the internal relationship between milk quality and lipid metabolism in cow mammary glands. A serial of studies was conducted to assess the molecular mechanism of PRL/microRNA-183/IRS1 (Insulin receptor substrate) pathway, which regulates milk fat metabolism in dairy cows. microRNA-183 (miR-183) was overexpressed and inhibited in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs), and its function was detected. The function of miR-183 in inhibiting milk fat metabolism was clarified by triglycerides (TAG), cholesterol and marker genes. There is a CpG island in the 5'-flanking promoter area of miR-183, which may inhibit the expression of miR-183 after methylation. Our results showed that prolactin (PRL) inhibited the expression of miR-183 by methylating the 5' terminal CpG island of miR-183. The upstream regulation of PRL on miR-183 was demonstrated, and construction of the lipid metabolism regulation network of microRNA-183 and target gene IRS1 was performed. These results reveal the molecular mechanism of PRL/miR-183/IRS1 pathway regulating milk fat metabolism in dairy cows, thus providing an experimental basis for the improvement of milk quality.
: 本研究的目的是了解牛奶质量与奶牛乳腺脂质代谢之间的内在关系。本研究旨在探讨 PRL/microRNA-183/IRS1 (Insulin receptor substance) 通路调控奶牛乳脂代谢的分子机制。 microRNA-183 (miR-183) 在奶牛乳腺上皮细胞 (CMECs) 中过表达和抑制，并检测其功能。通过甘油三酯 (TAG) 、胆固醇和标记基因阐明 miR-183 抑制乳脂代谢的功能。MiR-183 5 '-侧翼启动子区存在一个 CpG 岛，甲基化后可能抑制 miR-183 的表达。我们的结果表明，催乳素 (PRL) 通过甲基化 miR-183 的 5 '末端 CpG 岛抑制 miR-183 的表达。证明了 PRL 对 miR-183 的上游调控作用，并构建了 microRNA-183 和目的基因 IRS1 的脂代谢调控网络。这些结果揭示了 PRL/miR-183/IRS1 通路调控奶牛乳脂代谢的分子机制，从而为乳品质的改善提供了实验依据。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.