Depression-like behaviors are accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial energy metabolism in chronic corticosterone-induced mice.
- 作者列表："Xie X","Shen Q","Yu C","Xiao Q","Zhou J","Xiong Z","Li Z","Fu Z
:Stress exerts its negative effects by interference with mitochondrial energy production in rodents, and is able to impair mitochondrial bioenergetics. However, the underlying mechanism that stress hormone impacts depression-like behaviors and mitochondrial energy metabolism is still not well understood. Here, we investigated the changes of depression-like behaviors and mitochondrial energy metabolism induced by chronic corticosterone (CORT). The results showed that after treatment with CORT for 6 weeks, mice displayed depression-like behaviors, which were identified by tail suspension test, forced swimming test and open field test. Then, the livers were isolated and tested by RNA sequencing and metabolome analysis. RNA sequencing showed 354 up-regulated genes and 284 down-regulated genes, and metabolome analysis revealed 280 metabolites with increased abundances and 193 metabolites with reduced abundances in the liver of mice after CORT, which were closely associated with lipid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Based on these findings, the changes of mitochondrial energy metabolism were investigated, and we revealed that CORT condition inhibited glycolysis and fatty acid degradation pathway, and activated synthesis of triacylglycerol, leading to the reduced levels of acetyl-CoA and attenuated TCA cycle. Also, the pathways of NAD+ synthesis were inhibited, resulting in the reduced activity of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Thus, all of these observations disrupted the function of mitochondria, and led to the decrease of ATP production. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism of stress on depression-like behaviors and mitochondrial energy metabolism in rodents.
: 应激通过干扰啮齿类动物线粒体能量产生发挥其负面作用，并能够损害线粒体生物能量学。然而，应激激素影响抑郁样行为和线粒体能量代谢的潜在机制仍不清楚。在此，我们研究了慢性皮质酮 (CORT) 诱导的抑郁样行为和线粒体能量代谢的变化。结果表明，CORT 治疗 6 周后，小鼠表现出抑郁样行为，通过悬尾试验、强迫游泳试验和旷场试验进行鉴定。然后，分离肝脏，通过 RNA 测序和代谢组分析进行检测。RNA 测序显示 354 个上调基因和 284 个下调基因，代谢组分析发现 CORT 后小鼠肝脏中 280 个丰度增加的代谢物和 193 个丰度减少的代谢物, 与线粒体脂质代谢和氧化磷酸化密切相关。基于这些发现，研究了线粒体能量代谢的变化，我们发现 CORT 条件抑制糖酵解和脂肪酸降解途径，并激活三酰甘油的合成, 导致乙酰辅酶a 水平降低，TCA 循环减弱。同样，NAD + 合成的途径被抑制，导致 sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) 的活性降低。因此，所有这些观察破坏了线粒体的功能，并导致 ATP 产生的减少。我们的研究结果揭示了应激对啮齿类动物抑郁样行为和线粒体能量代谢的新机制。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.