Automated untargeted stable isotope assisted lipidomics of liver cells on high glucose shows alteration of sphingolipid kinetics.
- 作者列表："Noto D","Di Gaudio F","Altieri IG","Cefalù AB","Indelicato S","Fayer F","Spina R","Scrimali C","Giammanco A","Mattina A","Indelicato S","Greco M","Bongiorno D","Averna M
:Untargeted lipidomics is a powerful tool to discover new biomarkers and to understand the physiology and pathology of lipids. The use of stable isotopes as tracers to investigate the kinetics of lipids is another tool able to supply dynamic information on lipid synthesis and catabolism. Coupling the two methodology is then very appealing in the study of lipid metabolism. The main issue to face is to perform thousands of calculations in order to obtain kinetic parameters starting from the MS raw data. An automated computerized routine able to do accomplish such task is presented in this paper. We analyzed the lipid kinetics of palmitic acid (PA) in hepatoma liver cells cultured in vitro in which insulin resistance has been induced by high glucose supplementation. The deuterated palmitate tracer (d5PA) was administered as a bolus and the cells were harvested daily for 48 h. 5dPA was incorporated into 326 monoisotopic compounds and in 84 of their [M + 1] isotopologues detected by high resolution orbitrap MS. The differences between the kinetics curves showed that at least four long chain triglycerides (TG) species incorporated more PA in glucose treated cells, while phosphocholines, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-glycerides and ceramides (Cer) incorporated less tracer under glucose treatment. Nevertheless, Cer amount was increased by glucose treatment. In conclusion we developed an automated powerful algorithm able to model simultaneously hundreds of kinetic curves obtained in a cell culture spiked with a stable isotope tracer, and to analyze the difference between the two different cell models.
: 非靶向脂质组学是发现新的生物标志物和了解脂质生理和病理的有力工具。使用稳定同位素作为示踪剂来研究脂质的动力学是另一个能够提供脂质合成和分解代谢动态信息的工具。将这两种方法耦合起来，在脂质代谢的研究中非常有吸引力。要面对的主要问题是执行数千次计算，以便从 MS 原始数据开始获得动力学参数。本文介绍了一种能够完成这种任务的自动化计算机程序。我们分析了体外培养的高糖诱导胰岛素抵抗的肝癌肝细胞中棕榈酸 (PA) 的脂质动力学。氘代棕榈酸盐示踪剂 (d5PA) 作为推注给药，每天收获细胞 48 h。5 dpa 被掺入 326 个单同位素化合物中，并在高分辨率 orbitrap MS 检测到其中的 84 个 [m + 1] 同系物中。动力学曲线之间的差异表明，至少有四个长链甘油三酯 (TG) 物种在葡萄糖处理的细胞中掺入更多的 PA，而磷胆酸、鞘磷脂、单和二甘油酯和神经酰胺(Cer) 葡萄糖处理下掺入较少示踪剂。尽管如此，葡萄糖处理增加了 Cer 量。总之，我们开发了一种自动化的强大算法，能够同时建模在加入稳定同位素示踪剂的细胞培养物中获得的数百条动力学曲线，并分析两种不同细胞模型之间的差异。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.