代谢综合征的循环 miRNA 生物标志物
- 作者列表："Ramzan, F.","D’Souza, R. F.","Durainayagam, B. R.","Milan, A. M.","Markworth, J. F.","Miranda-Soberanis, V.","Sequeira, I. R.","Roy, N. C.","Poppitt, S. D.","Mitchell, C. J.","Cameron-Smith, D.
Aims Circulatory microRNAs (c-miRNAs) exert important roles in the molecular dysregulation of cardio-metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether dysregulated miRNA expression occurs when risk factors are elevated, as in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study quantified c-miRNA expression in individuals with MetS compared to healthy, further examining the relationship of gene pathways with the underlying pathogenesis. Methods Expression of 26 miRNAs was quantified in plasma from 40 women (20 healthy and 20 MetS) and 39 men (20 healthy and 19 MetS) by qPCR. In silico analysis was performed to investigate biological effects of the dysregulated miRNAs. Dysregulated miRNA expression was further validated in an independent cohort of 20 women (10 healthy and 10 MetS). Results Regression model adjusted for age and sex identified miR-15a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-370-3p and miR-375 as important predictors of MetS presence. Analysis of predictive miRNAs in the validation cohort strengthened the relationship with miR-15a-5p and miR-17-5p expression. These miRNAs share genes involved in the regulation of metabolic pathways including insulin, wnt , fatty acid metabolism and AMPK . Conclusions miR-15a-5p and miR-17-5p were identified as predictive biomarkers of MetS, irrespective of sexes, further demonstrating the relationship of c-miRNAs to known pathways of metabolic disturbances present in cardio-metabolic diseases.
循环 microRNAs (c-miRNAs) 在心脏代谢疾病的分子失调中发挥重要作用。然而，当危险因素升高时，如代谢综合征 (MetS) 中是否会发生 miRNA 表达失调却知之甚少。本研究量化了 MetS 个体与健康个体相比的 c-miRNA 表达，进一步检查了基因通路与潜在发病机制的关系。方法采用 qPCR 方法对 40 例女性 (20 例健康和 20 例 MetS) 和 39 例男性 (20 例健康和 19 例 MetS) 血浆中 26 个 miRNAs 的表达进行定量。进行计算机分析以研究失调 miRNAs 的生物学效应。在 20 例女性 (10 例健康和 10 例 MetS) 的独立队列中进一步验证了 miRNA 表达失调。结果校正了年龄和性别的回归模型确定了 miR-15a-5p 、 miR-17-5p 、 miR-370-3p 和 miR-375 是代谢综合征存在的重要预测因素。验证队列中预测 miRNAs 的分析加强了与 miR-15a-5p 和 miR-17-5p 表达的关系。这些 miRNAs 共享参与调节代谢途径的基因，包括胰岛素、 wnt 、脂肪酸代谢和 AMPK。结论 miR-15a-5p 和 miR-17-5p 被确定为 MetS 的预测生物标志物，与性别无关，进一步证明了 c-miRNAs 与心脏代谢疾病中存在的代谢紊乱的已知途径的关系。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.