Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans causing vaginal discharge among pregnant women in Lebanon.
- 作者列表："Ghaddar N","Anastasiadis E","Halimeh R","Ghaddar A","Dhar R","AlFouzan W","Yusef H","El Chaar M
BACKGROUND:Vaginal candidiasis is frequent in pregnant women and is associated with sepsis and adverse neonatal outcomes. This study determined the prevalence of candida species in symptomatic pregnant women and evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated Candida strains. It also aimed to explore whether Candida species predicts gestational complications and adverse neonatal outcomes. METHODS:A total of 258 pregnant women with vaginal discharge at 35 to 37 week of gestation participated in this study. Vaginal swabs from these patients were collected at various obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Lebanon for a period of 14 months. Candida isolates were identified at species level and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans to fluconazole (FCZ), amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ICZ) and voriconazole (VCZ) was determined by the agar-based E-test method. RESULTS:Among 258 women tested, 100 (39%) were positive for Candida species. C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were isolated from 42, 41 and 17% of the women, respectively. C. albicans was significantly associated only with gestational diabetes while C. krusei or C. glabrata had significant positive associations with other gestational complications. The antifungal susceptibility tests of C. albicans isolates revealed 97.5, 90, 87.5 and 97.5% susceptibility to AMB, FCZ, ICZ and VCZ, respectively. CONCLUSION:The current study revealed high incidence of both C. albicans and non-C. albicans Candida strains causing vulvovaginitis among pregnant women in Beirut, Lebanon. Candida screening as antenatal follow up is advised to minimize the risk of adverse neonatal outcome or gestational complications.
背景: 阴道念珠菌病常见于孕妇，与败血症和不良新生儿结局相关。本研究确定了在有症状的孕妇中念珠菌的流行情况，并评估了分离念珠菌菌株的抗真菌药敏谱。它还旨在探讨念珠菌是否能预测妊娠并发症和新生儿不良结局。 方法: 258 例妊娠 35 ~ 37 周阴道排液的孕妇参加本研究。在黎巴嫩各妇产科诊所收集这些患者的阴道拭子，为期 14 个月。念珠菌对氟康唑 (FCZ) 、两性霉素b (AMB) 、伊曲康唑 (ICZ) 和伏立康唑 (VCZ) 的菌种水平和抗真菌敏感性进行了鉴定。采用基于琼脂的 E-test 方法测定。 结果: 在检测的 258 名妇女中，100 名 (39%) 念珠菌属呈阳性。白色念珠菌、光滑念珠菌和克柔念珠菌分别从 42 、 41 和 17% 的妇女中分离。白色念珠菌仅与妊娠糖尿病显著相关，而克柔念珠菌或光滑念珠菌与其他妊娠并发症显著正相关。对白色念珠菌的药敏结果显示，AMB 、 FCZ 、 ICZ 和 VCZ 的敏感性分别为 97.5 、 90 、 87.5 和 97.5%。 结论: 黎巴嫩贝鲁特地区孕妇中，白色念珠菌和非白色念珠菌菌株的发病率均较高。建议将念珠菌筛查作为产前随访，以尽量减少新生儿不良结局或妊娠并发症的风险。
METHODS::Maternal lifestyle affects both mother health and pregnancy outcome in humans. Several studies have demonstrated that interventions oriented towards reducing stress and anxiety have positive effects on pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. In this work, we showed that the environmental enrichment (EE), defined as a noninvasive and biological significant stimulus of the sensory pathway combined with voluntary physical activity, prevented preterm birth (PTB) rate in a 41% in an inflammatory mouse model induced by the systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that EE modulates maternal metabolism and produces an anti-inflammatory environment that contributes to pregnancy maintenance. In pregnant mice uterus, EE reduces the expression of TLR4 and CD14 (the LPS receptor and its coactivator protein), preventing the LPS-induced increase in PGE2 and PGF2α release and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In cervical tissue, EE inhibits cervical ripening events, such as PGE2 release, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 increased activity and neutrophil recruitment, therefore conserving cervical function. It seems that EE exposure could mimic the stress and anxiety-reducing techniques mentioned above, explaining, at least partially, the beneficial effects of having a healthy lifestyle before and during gestation. Furthermore, we propose that designing an EE protocol for humans could be a noninvasive and preventive therapy for pregnancy complications, averting pre-term birth occurrence and dreaded sequelae that are present in the offspring born to soon.
METHODS:PROBLEM:We aimed to investigate the main causes of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in patients with losses after spontaneous gestation (SG) and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHOD OF STUDY:A prospective case-control study was conducted. The eligible patients were women who had experienced two or more consecutive abortions after less than 12 weeks gestation, two consecutive losses after SG or two consecutive losses after IVF. All patients were subjected to the following evaluations: karyotyping of the aborted material, alloimmune and autoimmune marker testing, and acquired and hereditary thrombophilia marker testing. RESULTS:In total, 58 patients were eligible: 32 patients with RM after SG and 26 patients with RM after IVF. The factors associated with RM were genetic (29%), immune (14%), thrombophilic (21%), and thrombophilic and immune (24%), and only 12% of the cases were idiopathic. Comparing the two study groups (SG and IVF), all studied factors were similar, except for a higher ANA positivity observed in the SG group (SG 30.4% versus IVF 5.3%, OR 8.6 (CI 1.1 - 21.1, P 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified the possibly factors associated with recurrent miscarriage in 86% of the cases, and these factors appear to be similar in patients with recurrent miscarriage after spontaneous gestation and IVF. This study demonstrates that IVF with PGT-A with euploid embryo transfer could reduce abortions by up to 29%, but other factors needs to be investigated even in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of pre-operative Music Therapy (MT) on pain in first-trimester abortion under local anaesthesia (ALA). DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial comparing patients undergoing a first-trimester ALA with or without a pre-operative MT session. SETTING:University hospital of Angers from November 2016 to August 2017. POPULATION:Patients who underwent first-trimester abortion under ALA. METHODS:Patients allocated to MT group underwent a pre-operative 20 minutes session of MT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) just before the procedure, during the procedure, at the end of the procedure and upon returning to the ward. RESULTS:159 patients were randomised (80 in MT group, and 79 in the control group). 2 patients were excluded from the control group and 6 from the MT group. Therefore, 77 patients were analysed in the control group and 74 in the MT group. The intensity of pain were similar in both the MT group and the Control group just before the procedure (VAS: 4.0±2.9 vs. 3.6±2.5, p=0.78), during the procedure (VAS: 5.3±2.5 vs. 4.9±2.9, p=0.78), at the end of the procedure (VAS: 2.7±2.4 vs. 2.6±2.4, p=0.43) and upon returning to the ward (VAS:1.8±2.0 vs. 1.5±2.0, p=0.84). The difference in pain between entering the department and returning to the room after the procedure was similar between the MT and Control groups (0.3±2.5 vs. 0.3±2.4 VAS levels difference; p=0.92). CONCLUSION:Music therapy session before an ALA procedure resulted in no improvement in patient perception of pain during a first-trimester abortion.