Histological characterization of interneurons in Alzheimer's disease reveals a loss of somatostatin interneurons in the temporal cortex.
- 作者列表："Waller R","Mandeya M","Viney E","Simpson JE","Wharton SB
:Neuronal dysfunction and synaptic loss are major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which correlate with symptom severity. Impairment of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory interneurons, which form around 20% of the total neuronal network, may be an early event contributing to neuronal circuit dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined the expression of two of the main classes of inhibitory interneurons, parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SST) interneurons in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD and control cases, using immunohistochemistry. We report a significant regional variation in the number of PV and SST interneurons with a higher number identified per mm2 in the temporal cortex compared to the hippocampus. Fewer SST interneurons, but not PV interneurons, were identified per mm2 in the temporal cortex of AD cases compared to control subjects. Our results support regional neuroanatomical effects on selective interneuron classes in AD, and suggest that impairment of the interneuronal circuit may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive decline in AD.
: 神经元功能障碍和突触丢失是阿尔茨海默病 (AD) 的主要特征，与症状严重程度相关。Γ-氨基丁酸 (GABA) 能抑制性中间神经元的损伤，约占总神经元网络的 20%，可能是神经退行性疾病中导致神经元环路功能障碍的早期事件。本研究采用免疫组织化学方法检测了 AD 和对照组颞叶皮层和海马中两类主要抑制性中间神经元小白蛋白 (PV) 和生长抑素 (SST) 中间神经元的表达。我们报告了 PV 和 SST 中间神经元数量的显著区域性变化，与海马相比，颞叶皮层中每 mm2 识别的数量较高。与对照组受试者相比，AD 病例颞叶皮层中每 mm2 识别出较少的 SST 中间神经元，而不是 PV 中间神经元。我们的结果支持区域神经解剖学对 AD 选择性中间神经元类别的影响，并提示中间神经元回路的损伤可能导致 AD 的神经元功能障碍和认知功能下降。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.