Prevention of denervated muscle atrophy with accelerated nerve-regeneration by babysitter procedure in rat facial nerve paralysis model.
- 作者列表："Hashimoto K","Matsumine H","Osaki H","Ueta Y","Kamei W","Shimizu M","Fujii K","Niimi Y","Miyata M","Sakurai H
PURPOSE:The "babysitter" procedure is a reconstruction technique for facial nerve complete paralysis and uses the movement source from the healthy facial nerve with a cross-nerve graft. First, an end-to-side neurorrhaphy is performed between the affected facial nerve trunk and hypoglossal nerve for continuously delivering stimuli to the mimetic muscles for preventing the atrophy of mimetic muscles. Despite favorable clinical results, histological and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. This study attempted to establish a model for the "babysitter" procedure and find its efficacy in rats with facial nerve complete paralysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 16 Lewis rats were used and divided into 2 groups; cross nerve graft (n = 8) and babysitter groups (n = 8). The facial nerve trunk was transected in both groups. Babysitter group underwent a two-stage procedure. Cross nerve graft group underwent only the transfer of nerve graft from the healthy side to affected side. The animals were assessed physiologically by compound muscle action potential (CMAP), and the regenerated nerve tissues were evaluated histopathologically at 13 weeks after surgery. RESULTS:Facial nucleus stained with retrograde tracers proved the re-innervation of affected facial muscle by the babysitter procedure. In CMAP, the amplitude of babysitter group was significantly higher than that of the cross-facial nerve graft group (p < .05). Histological examination found a significant difference in myelin g-ratio between two groups (p < .05). CONCLUSION:This study investigated the "babysitter" procedure for rat facial nerve palsy. Babysitter procedure shortened the denervation period without mimic muscle atrophy.
目的: “保姆” 手术是一种面神经完全瘫痪的重建技术，利用来自健康面神经的运动源，通过交叉神经移植。首先，在受累面神经干和舌下神经之间进行端侧神经吻合，连续向模拟肌肉传递刺激，防止模拟肌肉萎缩。尽管良好的临床结果，组织学和生理机制仍然未知。本研究试图建立 “保姆” 程序的模型，并在面神经完全瘫痪大鼠中发现其疗效。 材料和方法: 采用 Lewis 大鼠共 16 只，分为 2 组; 交叉神经移植组 (n = 8) 和保姆组 (n = 8)。两组均切断面神经干。保姆小组进行了两阶段的程序。交叉神经移植组仅将神经移植物从健侧转移到患侧。通过复合肌肉动作电位 (CMAP) 对动物进行生理评估，并在术后 13 周组织病理学评估再生神经组织。 结果: 逆行示踪剂染色的面神经核通过保姆程序证明了受累面肌的重新神经支配。在 CMAP 中，保姆组波幅明显高于跨面神经移植组 (p <.05)。组织学检查发现两组间髓鞘 g 比值有显著性差异 (p <.05)。 结论: 本研究调查了大鼠面神经麻痹的 “保姆” 程序。保姆程序缩短了去神经周期，没有模拟肌肉萎缩。
METHODS::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms of neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system. Recently, herbal medicines are clinically effective against MS as the current disease-modifying drugs have limited effectiveness. Hence, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OB) in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced cognitive deficits in the male rats. Further, the effect of OB (50, 100 and 200 μL/kg) was evaluated on EB-induced neuroinflammation, astrogliosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) of the animals. The EB was injected through bilateral intracerebroventricular route into hippocampus to induce MS-like manifestations in the rats. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and Ursolic acid (UA) significantly reduced the EB-induced cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and Y-maze test paradigms. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced neuroinflammation in terms of increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in the rat PFC. Further, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced astrogliosis in terms of increase in the levels of GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) and Iba-1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1) in the rat PFC. In addition, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced decrease in the mitochondrial function, integrity, respiratory control rate and ADP/O in the PFC of the rodents. Moreover, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly reduced the EB-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the PFC of the rat. Hence, it can be presumed that OB could be a potential alternative drug candidate in the pharmacotherapy of MS.
METHODS::Sleep fragmentation is an increase in sleep-wake transitions without an overall decrease in total sleep time. Sleep fragmentation is well documented during acute and chronic hospitalization and can result in delirium and memory problems in children. Sleep fragmentation is also often noted in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is unclear how sleep fragmentation independent of disease affects brain development and function. We hypothesized that acute sleep fragmentation during the neonatal period in otherwise healthy animals would result in neuroinflammation and would be associated with abnormalities in cognitive development. The orbital shaker method was used to fragment sleep for 72 h in postnatal day 3 New Zealand white rabbit kits (fragmentation group). To control for maternal separation, the sham group was separated from the dam and maintained in the same conditions without undergoing sleep fragmentation. A naïve control group remained with the dam. Kits underwent behavioral testing with novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation T-maze tests at 2-3 weeks post-fragmentation and were sacrificed 3-50 days after fragmentation. Sleep fragmentation resulted in acute and chronic changes in microglial morphology in the hippocampus and cortex, and regional differences in mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at 3, 7 and 50 days post-fragmentation. Impaired novel object recognition and a longer latency in T-maze task completion were noted in the fragmented kits. This was in spite of normalization of sleep architecture noted at 2 months of age in these kits. The results indicate that transient neonatal sleep fragmentation results in short-term and long-term immune alterations in the brain, along with diminished performance in cognitive tasks long-term.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a recently approved therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. To date, there is a poor understanding of the mechanism of action and lack of in vivo biomarkers. We propose a method for investigating the in vivo stimulation effects using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI and present the brain activation pattern associated with ANT DBS. METHODS:Two patients undergoing ANT DBS for epilepsy underwent BOLD MRI using a block design after the DBS was programmed to alternate ON/OFF in 30 second blocks. The scanner was triggered utilizing surface electrophysiological recording to detect the DBS cycle. Nine total runs were obtained and were analyzed using a general linear model. RESULTS:Active ANT stimulation produced activation within several areas of the brain, including the thalamus, bilateral anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, striatum, and right angular gyrus. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing block-design BOLD MRI, we were able to show widespread activation resulting from ANT DBS. Overlap with multiple areas of both the default mode and limbic networks was shown suggesting that these nodes may modulate the effect of seizure control with ANT DBS.