Rural-Urban Disparities in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mortality in the USA: Preliminary Findings from the National Inpatient Sample.
- 作者列表："Otite FO","Akano EO","Akintoye E","Khandelwal P","Malik AM","Chaturvedi S","Rosand J
OBJECTIVES:To compare in-hospital mortality between intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients in rural hospitals to those in urban hospitals of the USA. METHODS:We used the National Inpatient Sample to retrospectively identify all cases of ICH in the USA over the period 2004-2014. We used multivariable-adjusted models to compare odds of mortality between rural and urban hospitals. Joinpoint regression was used to evaluate trends in age- and sex-adjusted mortality in rural and urban hospitals over time. RESULTS:From 2004 to 2014, 5.8% of ICH patients were admitted in rural hospitals. Rural patients were older (mean [SE] 76.0 [0.44] years vs. 68.8 [0.11] years in urban), more likely to be white and have Medicare insurance. Age- and sex-adjusted mortality was greater in rural hospitals (32.2%) compared to urban patients (26.5%) (p value < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, patients hospitalized in rural hospitals had two times the odds of in-hospital death compared to patients in urban hospitals (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.77-2.41. p value < 0.001). After joinpoint regression, mortality declined in urban hospitals by an average of 2.8% per year (average annual percentage change, [AAPC] - 2.8%, 95% CI - 3.7 to - 1.8%), but rates in rural hospitals remained unchanged (AAPC - 0.54%, 95% CI - 1.66 to 0.58%). CONCLUSIONS:Despite current efforts to reduce disparity in stroke care, ICH patients hospitalized in rural hospitals had two times the odds of dying compared to those in urban hospitals. In addition, the ICH mortality gap between rural and urban centers is increasing. Further studies are needed to identify and reverse the causes of this disparity.
目的: 比较农村医院脑出血 (ICH) 患者与美国城市医院脑出血患者的住院死亡率。 方法: 我们使用全国住院患者样本回顾性鉴定 2004-2014 年期间美国所有 ICH 病例。我们使用多变量校正模型比较农村和城市医院的死亡率。使用 Joinpoint 回归评价农村和城市医院年龄和性别校正死亡率随时间的变化趋势。 结果: 从 2004-2014年，5.8% 的 ICH 患者在农村医院入院。农村患者年龄较大 (平均 [SE] 76.0 [0.44] 岁 vs.城市 68.8 [0.11] 岁)，更可能是白人并有医疗保险。农村医院的年龄和性别校正死亡率 (32.2%) 高于城市患者 (26.5%) (p 值 <0.001)。经多变量校正后，农村医院住院患者的院内死亡几率是城市医院患者的 2 倍 (OR 2.07，95% CI 1.77-2.41)。P 值 <0.001)。Joinpoint 回归后，城市医院的死亡率平均每年下降 2.8% (平均年百分比变化，[AAPC] -2.8%，95% CI-3.7 至-1.8%),但农村医院的比率保持不变 (AAPC-0.54%，95% CI-1.66 ~ 0.58%)。 结论: 尽管目前努力缩小卒中护理的差距，但在农村医院住院的 ICH 患者死亡几率是城市医院的两倍。此外，农村和城市中心之间的 ICH 死亡率差距正在增加。需要进一步的研究来确定和扭转这种差异的原因。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:People with stroke are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. The modifiable factors associated with post-stroke physical activity levels need to be identified to develop targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the factors at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation that are associated with physical activity levels at 3 months following discharge. DESIGN:This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS:Sixty-four people with stroke completed baseline assessments at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and 55 completed the follow-up 3 months later. The candidate factors (i.e. gait speed, balance, strength, cognition, mood and motivation) were measured at discharge. The primary outcome measure at follow-up was walking related activity (measured by wrist-worn accelerometer). Secondary outcome measures were physical activity participation (Activity Card Sort) and intensity of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short 7 days). Adjusted separate multivariable linear regression models or proportional odds regression models were used to evaluate the associations between candidate factors and physical activity. RESULTS:Gait speed and balance were associated with all aspects of physical activity. Higher level of intrinsic motivation was also associated with higher physical activity participation. Anxiety demonstrated a significant non-linear relationship with physical activity participation. LIMITATIONS:Inclusion of fatigue and individual muscle strength could have provided further insights into associations with steps per day. CONCLUSION:The results demonstrated that better physical function at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation was associated with future increased levels of physical activity. Additionally, higher levels of motivation impacted on increased physical activity participation. The influence of anxiety on physical activity participation requires further exploration. Mixed-method study designs can be utilized to further understand the factors associated with post-stroke physical activity.
METHODS:Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by initial transient cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion. Various pathophysiological processes are involved in brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R. There are few studies on dynamic metabolic process after cerebral I/R. The present study was to observe dynamic alteration of brain injury, functional recovery, and metabolites after cerebral I/R in rats and discover potential metabolic markers. The cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, following reperfusion in rats. The results of cerebral infarction area, cerebral edema, and behavior test showed that there were dynamic changes in brain injury and functional recovery at different periods after cerebral I/R. Further analysis showed that the brain injury was severe on the first day of cerebral I/R, and there was a significant functional recovery from the 7th day of cerebral I/R, followed by an aggravation trend of brain injury from the days 7 to 28. Furthermore, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging analysis showed that the expression of ATP, glucose, and citric acid on 7th day was the highest during cerebral I/R, which indicated that energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation played important roles during cerebral I/R. In addition, the untargeted metabolomic results showed that the level of isocitric acid, the ratio of oxyglutaric acid/glutamic acid, and the level of pyruvic acid associated with the TCA cycle were also the highest on the 7th day during cerebral I/R, which indicated that the transient spontaneous recovery of ischemic brain on the 7th day after ischemia-reperfusion might be related to oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism in the brain in this period. In conclusion, the results suggest that some small molecule metabolites participate in the brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R, which is of great significance to the development of therapeutic drugs and diagnostic markers.
METHODS:The aims of this study were to study the effects of miR-2 on cerebral ischemia–reperfusion rats and to explore its further mechanism. Rats were assigned into sham, model, miR-22 control and miR-22 groups. Observation of neurological behaviors at 24 h after operation found that neurological functions were severely damaged in the model and miR-22 control groups and these damages were improved by miR-22. RT-PCR indicated that miR-22 mRNA level in the brain tissue was significantly decreased in the model and miR-22 control groups, but increased in the miR-22 group. TTC staining showed increased percentage of cerebral infarction volume in the model and miR-22 control groups and this increase was reduced by miR-22. Immunohistochemistry showed increased densities of CD34^+ and VEGF^+ microvessels in the cortex in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. ELISA showed increased serum VEGF and Ang-1 levels in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were also further increased in the miR-22 group. Western blot analysis showed increased phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt in brain tissue in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. Administration of LY294002, a specific PI3K pathway inhibitor, significantly reversed all the effects of miR-22 on rats in the model group. miR-22 exerts its neuroprotective and angiogenic functions via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, at least partly, in rats under cerebral ischemia–reperfusion.