The metabolic changes in the hippocampus of an atherosclerotic rat model and the regulation of aerobic training.
- 作者列表："Liu B","Li J","Lin X","Hu J","Lou S
:Atherosclerosis has been associated with the progression of cognitive impairment and the effect of metabolic changes in the brain on cognitive function may be pronounced. The aim is to reveal the metabolic changes during atherosclerosis and clarify the possible role of exercise in regulating hippocampal metabolism. Hence, A rat model of atherosclerosis was established by high-fat diet feeding in combination with vitamin D3 intraperitoneal injection, then 4 weeks of aerobic exercise was conducted. Metabolomics based on GC-MS was applied to detect small molecules metabolites and western blot was used to detect the concentration of enzymes involved in metabolic changes in rat hippocampus. Compared to the control group, metabolites including xylulose 5-phosphate, threonine, succinate, and nonanoic acid were markedly elevated, whereas methyl arachidonic acid and methyl stearate decreased in the AS group, accompanied by a raised concentration of aldose reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase as well as a declined concentration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. After 4 weeks' aerobic exercise, the levels of succinic acid, branched chain amino acids, nonanoic acid, desmosterol, and aldose reductase decreased, whereas methyl arachidonic acid, methyl stearate, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate elevated in the hippocampus of the TAS group in comparison with the AS group. These results suggest that atherosclerosis could cause a severe metabolic disturbance, and aerobic exercise plays an important role in regulating atherosclerosis-induced disorder of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus.
: 动脉粥样硬化与认知障碍的进展有关，大脑代谢变化对认知功能的影响可能是明显的。旨在揭示动脉粥样硬化过程中的代谢变化，阐明运动在调节海马代谢中的可能作用。因此，采用高脂饲料喂养结合维生素 D3 腹腔注射建立动脉粥样硬化大鼠模型，然后进行 4 周的有氧运动。应用基于 GC-MS 的代谢组学检测小分子代谢产物，western blot 检测参与大鼠海马代谢变化的酶的浓度。与对照组相比，AS 组的代谢产物包括木酮糖 5-磷酸、苏氨酸、琥珀酸和壬酸显著升高，而甲基花生四烯酸和甲基硬脂酸甲酯降低,伴随着醛糖还原酶和葡萄糖 6-磷酸脱氢酶浓度的升高以及乙酰辅酶a 羧化酶和脂肪酸合成酶浓度的降低。4 周有氧运动后，琥珀酸、支链氨基酸、壬酸、键甾醇、醛糖还原酶水平下降，而甲基花生四烯酸、硬脂酸甲酯、与 AS 组相比，TAS 组海马 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 升高。提示动脉粥样硬化可引起严重的代谢紊乱，有氧运动在调节动脉粥样硬化引起的海马糖代谢紊乱中起重要作用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.