Diets containing the highest levels of dairy products are associated with greater eutrophication potential but higher nutrient intakes and lower financial cost in the United Kingdom.
- 作者列表："Hobbs DA","Durrant C","Elliott J","Givens DI","Lovegrove JA
PURPOSE:Previously, the nutritional contribution, environmental and financial costs of dairy products have been examined independently. Our aim was to determine the nutritional adequacy, financial cost and environmental impact of UK diets according to dairy content. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study of adults (19-64 years) from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey years 1-4 (n = 1655), dietary intakes assessed from 4-day estimated food diaries were organized into quartiles (Q) total grams of dairy (milk, cheese, yogurt, dairy desserts) and analyzed using ANCOVA controlling for age, sex and energy intake with Bonferroni post hoc test for nutritional adequacy, Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), environmental impact [greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), eutrophication and acidification potentials], financial cost, markers of health and cardio-metabolic diseases. RESULTS:Nutritional adequacy, particularly for protein, calcium and iodine (+ 18 g, + 533 mg, + 95 g, respectively, all P < 0.0001) and AHEI-2010 (P < 0.0001) were significantly higher and systolic BP (- 2 mmHg, P = 0.019) was significantly lower for the higher-dairy diets (Q4, 274-1429 g/day dairy), compared with diets containing lower dairy (Q1, 0-96 g/day dairy). Diets in Q4 had lower financial cost (- 19%, P < 0.0001) and the greatest eutrophication potential, compared with Q1 (+ 29%, P < 0.0001). Yet the environmental (GHGE) and financial costs per unit nutrient (riboflavin, zinc, iodine, magnesium, calcium, potassium) were lower in Q4 than Q1 (all P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION:Diets with the highest dairy content had higher nutrient composition, better diet quality, were associated with lower BP and financial cost, but with higher eutrophication potential. Robust environmental data for many of food groups are limited and this needs an urgent addressing. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03407248.
目的: 以前，乳制品的营养贡献、环境和财务成本已被独立检查。我们的目的是根据乳制品含量确定英国饮食的营养充分性、财务成本和环境影响。 方法: 在这项来自英国国家饮食和营养调查 1-4 年 (n = 1655) 的成人 (19-64 岁) 的横断面研究中,根据 4 天估计的食物日记评估的膳食摄入量被组织成四分位数 (Q) 乳制品 (牛奶、奶酪、酸奶、乳制品甜点) 的总克数并使用 ANCOVA 进行分析，控制年龄、性别和能量摄入，使用 Bonferroni 事后营养充分性试验，替代健康饮食指数 (AHEI-2010)，环境影响 [温室气体排放 (GHGE),富营养化和酸化潜力]，财务成本，健康和心脏代谢疾病的标志物。 结果: 营养充足，特别是蛋白质、钙和碘 (分别为 + 18 g 、 + 533 mg 、 + 95g，均 P < 0.0001) 高乳制品饮食 (Q4,274-1429g/天乳制品)，与含较低乳制品的日粮 (Q1，0-96g/天乳制品) 相比。与 Q1 (+ 19%，P <0.0001) 相比，Q4 日粮的财务成本较低 (-29%，P <0.0001)，富营养化潜力最大。然而，第四季度的环境成本 (GHGE) 和单位营养成本 (核黄素、锌、碘、镁、钙、钾) 均低于 Q1 (均 p <0.0001)。 结论: 乳制品含量最高的日粮营养成分较高，日粮质量较好，与较低的 BP 和财务成本相关，但具有较高的富营养化潜力。许多食品群体的稳健环境数据有限，这需要一个紧迫的解决方案。 试验注册: 该试验在 clinicaltrials.gov 上注册为 nct03407248。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.