欧洲儿童饮食中游离糖的膳食来源: IDEFICS 研究。
- 作者列表："Graffe MIM","Pala V","De Henauw S","Eiben G","Hadjigeorgiou C","Iacoviello L","Intemann T","Jilani H","Molnar D","Russo P","Veidebaum T","Moreno LA
OBJECTIVE:To report dietary free sugars consumption and their different types and food sources in European children. METHODS:The present study is based on the IDEFICS study, a European multicenter cohort study in children (2-9 years old) from eight countries, comprising 8308 children (51.4% males). Dietary intake of the previous 24 h was assessed using a computer-assisted 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and the different types of sugars were assessed using the German food composition database. RESULTS:Mean total energy intake was 1720 (SD 477) kcal/d for boys and 1631 (SD 451) kcal/d for girls. Total sugars intake was 98 (SD 52) g/day for boys and 93 (SD 49) g/day for girls. Free sugars intake was 81 (SD 49) g/day for boys and 77 (SD 47) g/day for girls. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, total and free sugars compared with than boys but did not differ in terms of percent of energy from total (23%) or free sugars (18%). There were large variations between countries in average % energy from free sugars (ranging from 13% in Italy to 27% in Germany). Less than 20% of children were within the recommended intake of 10% of energy from free sugars. The food groups that contributed substantially to free sugars intakes were "Fruit juices", "Soft drinks", "Dairy" and "Sweets and candies". CONCLUSIONS:The contribution of free sugars to total energy intake in European children is higher than recommendations. The main food contributors to free sugars intake are sweetened beverages ("Fruit juices" and "Soft drinks"). It is especially important to reduce children's intake of free sugars, focusing in target population on certain foods and food groups.
目的: 报告欧洲儿童的膳食游离糖消费量及其不同类型和食物来源。 方法: 本研究基于 IDEFICS 研究，这是一项欧洲多中心队列研究，来自 8 个国家的儿童 (2-9 岁)，包括 8308 名儿童 (51.4% 名男性)。使用计算机辅助 24 h 膳食回顾 (24-HDR) 评估之前 24 h 的膳食摄入量，并使用德国食物成分数据库评估不同类型的糖。 结果: 平均总能量摄入男生为 1720 (SD 477) kcal/d，女生为 1631 (SD 451) kcal/d。男孩的总糖摄入量为 98 (SD 52) g/天，女孩为 93 (SD 49) g/天。游离糖摄入量男孩为 81 (SD 49) g/天，女孩为 77 (SD 47) g/天。与男孩相比，女孩的能量、总糖和游离糖摄入量显著低于男孩，但在能量百分比方面与总糖 (23%) 或游离糖 (18%) 没有差异。国家之间的游离糖的平均能量 % 存在很大差异 (意大利为 13%，德国为 27%)。少于 20% 的儿童在游离糖能量的 10% 的推荐摄入量范围内。对游离糖摄入量有实质性贡献的食物组是 “果汁” 、 “软饮料” 、 “乳制品” 和 “糖果和糖果”。 结论: 游离糖对欧洲儿童总能量摄入的贡献高于推荐值。摄入游离糖的主要食物是含糖饮料 (“果汁” 和 “软饮料”)。尤其重要的是减少儿童游离糖的摄入量，将目标人群集中在某些食物和食物群体上。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.