- 作者列表："Liu X","Hanseman DJ","Champagne CM","Bray GA","Qi L","Williamson DA","Anton SD","Sacks FM","Tong J
CONTEXT:Eating habits and food craving are strongly correlated with weight status. It is currently not well understood how psychological and behavioral factors influence both weight loss and weight regain. OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations between psychological and behavioral predictors with weight changes and energy intake in a randomized controlled trial on weight loss. DESIGN AND SETTING:The Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies is a dietary intervention trial that examined the efficacy of 4 diets on weight loss over 2 years. Participants were 811 overweight (body mass index, 25-40.9 kg/m2; age, 30-70 years) otherwise healthy adults. RESULTS:Every 1-point increase in craving score for high-fat foods at baseline was associated with greater weight loss (-1.62 kg, P = .0004) and a decrease in energy intake (r = -0.10, P = .01) and fat intake (r = -0.16, P < .0001) during the weight loss period. In contrast, craving for carbohydrates/starches was associated with both less weight loss (P < .0001) and more weight regain (P = .04). Greater cognitive restraint of eating at baseline was associated with both less weight loss (0.23 kg, P < .0001) and more weight regain (0.14 kg, P = .0027), whereas greater disinhibition of eating was only associated with more weight regain (0.12 kg, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS:Craving for high-fat foods is predictive of greater weight loss, whereas craving for carbohydrates is predictive of less weight loss. Cognitive restraint is predictive of less weight loss and more weight regain. Interventions targeting different psychological and behavioral factors can lead to greater success in weight loss.
背景: 饮食习惯和食物渴求与体重状况密切相关。目前还不清楚心理和行为因素如何影响体重减轻和体重恢复。 目的: 在一项关于减肥的随机对照试验中，研究心理和行为预测因素与体重变化和能量摄入之间的相关性。 设计和地点: 使用新型饮食策略预防肥胖是一项饮食干预试验，检查了 4 种饮食在 2 年内对减肥的疗效。参与者 811 超重 (体重指数，25-40.9千克 kg/m2; 年龄，30-70 岁) 否则健康成人。 结果: 高脂食物的渴求得分在基线时每增加 1 分，与更大的体重减轻相关 (-1.62千克，p =.0004) 减肥期间能量摄入 (r = -0.10，p =.01) 和脂肪摄入 (r = -0.16，p <.0001) 减少。相比之下，对碳水化合物/淀粉的渴望与体重减轻较少 (p <.0001) 和体重恢复较多 (p =.04) 相关。基线时更大的进食认知抑制与更少的体重减轻 (0.23千克，p <.0001) 和更多的体重恢复 (0.14千克，p =.0027) 相关,而更大的进食去抑制仅与更多的体重恢复相关 (0.12千克，p =.01)。 结论: 对高脂肪食物的渴望预示着更大的体重减轻，而对碳水化合物的渴望预示着更少的体重减轻。认知抑制预示着体重减轻越少，体重恢复越多。针对不同心理和行为因素的干预可以导致减肥的更大成功。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.