Hispidulin exhibits potent anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo through activating ER stress in non‑small‑cell lung cancer cells.
Hispidulin 通过激活非小细胞肺癌细胞中的 ER 应激，在体内外表现出强效的抗癌活性。
- 作者列表："Lv L","Zhang W","Li T","Jiang L","Lu X","Lin J
:Hispidulin is a medicinal natural compound isolated from S. involucrata, which exhibits potent anticancer properties. However, there are few reports on its effects on lung cancer cells. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of hispidulin on cell viability and apoptosis in human non‑small‑cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines NCI‑H460 and A549 in vitro and in vivo. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, colony formation assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, flow cytometry and western blotting were performed on Human NCI‑H460 and A549 cells. A mouse xenograft model was also established using NCI‑H460 cells. The results showed that the growth of NCI‑H460 and A549 cells was inhibited, while apoptosis was promoted by hispidulin via increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, hispidulin triggered apoptosis in NSCLC cells through upregulating the expression of cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved poly [ADP‑ribose] polymerase. All these effects were reversed upon pretreatment with glutathione, a selective ROS inhibitor. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in NCI‑H460 cells was activated by hispidulin. Pretreatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a specific ER stress inhibitor, effectively reduced the cell apoptosis induced by hispidulin. In conclusion, hispidulin induces ROS‑mediated apoptosis via activating the ER stress pathway. The current study provides theoretical basis for the antitumor effect of hispidulin in NSCLC.
: Hispidulin 是一种药用天然化合物，从 S.Exonucrata 中分离出来，具有强效的抗癌特性。然而，关于其对肺癌细胞影响的研究报道较少。因此，本研究在体外和体内研究了 hispidulin 对人非小细胞肺癌 (NSCLC) 细胞系 nci ‑ H460 和 A549 细胞活力和凋亡的影响。对人 nci ‑ H460 和 A549 细胞进行甲基噻唑基四唑、集落形成试验、 Hoechst 33342 染色、流式细胞术和 western blotting。还使用 nci ‑ H460 细胞建立了小鼠异种移植模型。结果表明，hispimolin 通过增加活性氧 (ROS) 的产生，以剂量依赖性方式抑制 nci ‑ H460 和 A549 细胞的生长，而促进细胞凋亡。此外，hispidulin 通过上调 cleaved caspase ‑ 3 和 cleaved poly [ad ‑ ribose] 聚合酶的表达触发 NSCLC 细胞凋亡。所有这些作用在用选择性 ROS 抑制剂谷胱甘肽预处理后被逆转。此外，nci ‑ H460 细胞内质网应激 (ER stress) 被 hispidolin 激活。用特定的 ER 应激抑制剂牛磺熊去氧胆酸预处理，有效地减少了组糖蛋白诱导的细胞凋亡。总之，hispidulin 通过激活 ER 应激通路诱导 ros ‑ 介导的细胞凋亡。目前的研究为组糖蛋白在 NSCLC 中的抗肿瘤作用提供了理论依据。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.