Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Predictor of Poor Perinatal Outcomes in Maternal Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Series and Single-Center Cross-Sectional Study in Japan.
- 作者列表："Kasahara K","Ono T","Higuchi A","Katsura D","Hayashi K","Tokoro S","Tsuji S","Kimura F","Murakami T
:Eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders among women of reproductive age, and the prevalence of eating disorders has been increasing over time in Japan and other countries. The aim of the present study was to assess perinatal outcomes in maternal anorexia nervosa in Japan and to explore methods to improve perinatal outcomes. This study consists of a case series describing 13 single pregnancies of 11 women with a history of anorexia nervosa, and a cross-sectional study comparing 13 cases with 240 healthy controls. In the case group, nine cases conceived while underweight, including three who had fertility treatment. Anorexia symptoms during pregnancy were quite common, and pregnant smokers presented with extremely disturbed eating behaviors. In a cross-sectional study, premature birth and the standard deviations from the mean birth weight and mean head circumference at birth were evaluated as outcome measures. The adjusted odds ratios or the adjusted differences between two means for the above outcomes were estimated by two approaches: multivariate models and matching analysis. Statistical analysis showed that maternal anorexia nervosa was associated with an increased risk of premature birth and symmetric growth restriction mediated by low pre-pregnancy body mass index and poor gestational weight gain which were adjusted as confounders. Smoking during pregnancy was a potential indicator of abnormal eating behavior and could be predictive of poor perinatal outcomes. We therefore conclude that remission of anorexia nervosa before pregnancy could improve perinatal outcomes through both normal nutrition and smoking cessation. Fertility treatment while underweight is not recommended.
: 进食障碍是育龄妇女常见的精神疾病，在日本和其他国家，进食障碍的患病率随着时间的推移而增加。本研究的目的是评估日本产妇神经性厌食症的围产结局，并探讨改善围产结局的方法。本研究包括一个病例系列，描述了 11 例有神经性厌食症病史的女性的 13 例单次妊娠，以及一项比较 13 例与 240 例健康对照的横断面研究。在病例组中，9 例在体重不足时受孕，其中 3 例接受过生育治疗。孕期厌食症状相当常见，妊娠吸烟者呈现极度不安的饮食行为。在一项横断面研究中，评价早产和出生时平均出生体重和平均头围的标准差作为结局指标。通过多变量模型和匹配分析两种方法估计上述结局的调整后优势比或两种方法之间的调整后差异。统计分析显示，母亲神经性厌食症与低孕前体重指数和妊娠期体重增加不良介导的早产和对称性生长受限风险增加相关，并将其调整为混杂因素。孕期吸烟是异常饮食行为的潜在指标，可预测不良围产结局。因此，我们得出结论，孕前缓解神经性厌食症可以通过正常营养和戒烟改善围产期结局。不建议在体重不足的情况下进行生育治疗。
METHODS::Maternal lifestyle affects both mother health and pregnancy outcome in humans. Several studies have demonstrated that interventions oriented towards reducing stress and anxiety have positive effects on pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. In this work, we showed that the environmental enrichment (EE), defined as a noninvasive and biological significant stimulus of the sensory pathway combined with voluntary physical activity, prevented preterm birth (PTB) rate in a 41% in an inflammatory mouse model induced by the systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that EE modulates maternal metabolism and produces an anti-inflammatory environment that contributes to pregnancy maintenance. In pregnant mice uterus, EE reduces the expression of TLR4 and CD14 (the LPS receptor and its coactivator protein), preventing the LPS-induced increase in PGE2 and PGF2α release and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In cervical tissue, EE inhibits cervical ripening events, such as PGE2 release, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 increased activity and neutrophil recruitment, therefore conserving cervical function. It seems that EE exposure could mimic the stress and anxiety-reducing techniques mentioned above, explaining, at least partially, the beneficial effects of having a healthy lifestyle before and during gestation. Furthermore, we propose that designing an EE protocol for humans could be a noninvasive and preventive therapy for pregnancy complications, averting pre-term birth occurrence and dreaded sequelae that are present in the offspring born to soon.
METHODS:PROBLEM:We aimed to investigate the main causes of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in patients with losses after spontaneous gestation (SG) and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHOD OF STUDY:A prospective case-control study was conducted. The eligible patients were women who had experienced two or more consecutive abortions after less than 12 weeks gestation, two consecutive losses after SG or two consecutive losses after IVF. All patients were subjected to the following evaluations: karyotyping of the aborted material, alloimmune and autoimmune marker testing, and acquired and hereditary thrombophilia marker testing. RESULTS:In total, 58 patients were eligible: 32 patients with RM after SG and 26 patients with RM after IVF. The factors associated with RM were genetic (29%), immune (14%), thrombophilic (21%), and thrombophilic and immune (24%), and only 12% of the cases were idiopathic. Comparing the two study groups (SG and IVF), all studied factors were similar, except for a higher ANA positivity observed in the SG group (SG 30.4% versus IVF 5.3%, OR 8.6 (CI 1.1 - 21.1, P 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified the possibly factors associated with recurrent miscarriage in 86% of the cases, and these factors appear to be similar in patients with recurrent miscarriage after spontaneous gestation and IVF. This study demonstrates that IVF with PGT-A with euploid embryo transfer could reduce abortions by up to 29%, but other factors needs to be investigated even in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of pre-operative Music Therapy (MT) on pain in first-trimester abortion under local anaesthesia (ALA). DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial comparing patients undergoing a first-trimester ALA with or without a pre-operative MT session. SETTING:University hospital of Angers from November 2016 to August 2017. POPULATION:Patients who underwent first-trimester abortion under ALA. METHODS:Patients allocated to MT group underwent a pre-operative 20 minutes session of MT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) just before the procedure, during the procedure, at the end of the procedure and upon returning to the ward. RESULTS:159 patients were randomised (80 in MT group, and 79 in the control group). 2 patients were excluded from the control group and 6 from the MT group. Therefore, 77 patients were analysed in the control group and 74 in the MT group. The intensity of pain were similar in both the MT group and the Control group just before the procedure (VAS: 4.0±2.9 vs. 3.6±2.5, p=0.78), during the procedure (VAS: 5.3±2.5 vs. 4.9±2.9, p=0.78), at the end of the procedure (VAS: 2.7±2.4 vs. 2.6±2.4, p=0.43) and upon returning to the ward (VAS:1.8±2.0 vs. 1.5±2.0, p=0.84). The difference in pain between entering the department and returning to the room after the procedure was similar between the MT and Control groups (0.3±2.5 vs. 0.3±2.4 VAS levels difference; p=0.92). CONCLUSION:Music therapy session before an ALA procedure resulted in no improvement in patient perception of pain during a first-trimester abortion.