TSPO Versus P2X7 as a Target for Neuroinflammation: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study.
TSPO 与 P2X7 作为神经炎症的靶点: 体外和体内研究。
- 作者列表："Van Weehaeghe D","Van Schoor E","De Vocht J","Koole M","Attili B","Celen S","Declercq L","Thal DR","Van Damme P","Bormans G","Van Laere K
:Neuroinflammation is important in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a promising target for neuroinflammation. The objective of this study was to compare 18F-DPA714, a second-generation translocator protein tracer, with 11C-JNJ717, a novel P2X7R tracer, in vitro and in vivo in ALS. Methods: For the in vitro portion of the study, autoradiography with 18F-DPA714 and 11C-JNJ717 was performed on human ALS brain sections in comparison to immunofluorescence with Iba1 and GFAP. For the in vivo portion, 3 male patients with early-stage ALS (59.3 ± 7.2 y old) and 6 healthy volunteers (48.2 ± 16.5 y old, 2 men and 4 women) underwent dynamic PET/MR scanning with 18F-DPA714 and 11C-JNJ717. Volume-of-distribution images were calculated using Logan plots and analyzed on a volume-of-interest basis. Results: Autoradiography showed no difference in 11C-JNJ717 binding but did show increased 18F-DPA714 binding in the motor cortex correlating with Iba1 expression (glial cells). Similar findings were observed in vivo, with a 13% increase in 18F-DPA714 binding in the motor cortex. Conclusion: In symptomatic ALS patients, 18F-DPA714 showed increased signal whereas 11C-JNJ717 was not elevated.
: 神经炎症在肌萎缩侧索硬化 (ALS) 中很重要。P2X7 受体 (P2X7R) 是神经炎症的一个有前途的靶点。本研究的目的是在 ALS 的体外和体内比较第二代转运蛋白示踪剂 18F-DPA714 与新型 x7p2r 示踪剂 11C-JNJ717。方法: 在研究的体外部分，用 18F-DPA714 和 11C-JNJ717 在人 ALS 脑切片上进行放射自显影，并与用 Iba1 和 GFAP 的免疫荧光进行比较。对于体内部分，3 例早期 ALS 患者 (59.3 ± 7.2 岁) 和 6 例健康志愿者 (48.2 ± 16.5 岁，2 男 4 女) 用 18F-DPA714 和 11C-JNJ717 进行动态 PET/MR 扫描。使用 Logan 图计算分布体积图像，并在感兴趣体积的基础上进行分析。结果: 放射自显影显示 11C-JNJ717 结合无差异，但运动皮质中 18F-DPA714 结合增加，与 Iba1 表达 (胶质细胞) 相关。在体内观察到类似的发现，运动皮层 18F-DPA714 结合增加了 13%。结论: 在有症状的 ALS 患者中，18F-DPA714 显示信号增加，而 11C-JNJ717 没有升高。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.