Expression of ALS-linked SOD1 mutation in motoneurons or myotubes induces differential effects on neuromuscular function in vitro.
运动神经元或肌管中 ALS 连锁 SOD1 突变的表达在体外诱导对神经肌肉功能的差异作用。
- 作者列表："Benlefki S","Sanchez-Vicente A","Milla V","Lucas O","Soulard C","Younes R","Gergely C","Bowerman M","Raoul C","Scamps F","Hilaire C
:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects upper and lower motoneurons. Dismantlement of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is an early pathological hallmark of the disease whose cellular origin remains still debated. We developed an in vitro NMJ model to investigate the differential contribution of motoneurons and muscle cells expressing ALS-causing mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) to neuromuscular dysfunction. The primary co-culture system allows the formation of functional NMJs and fosters the expression of the ALS-sensitive fast fatigable type II-b myosin heavy chain isoform. Expression of SOD1G93A in myotubes does not prevent the formation of a functional NMJ but leads to decreased contraction frequency and lowers the slow type I myosin heavy chain isoform transcript levels. Expression of SOD1G93A in both motoneurons and myotubes or in motoneurons alone however alters the formation of a functional NMJ. Our results strongly suggest that motoneurons are a major factor involved in the process of NMJ dismantlement in an experimental model of ALS.
: 肌萎缩侧索硬化 (ALS) 是一种致命的神经退行性疾病，选择性地影响上下运动神经元。神经肌肉接头 (NMJ) 的拆除是该疾病的早期病理标志，其细胞来源仍存在争议。我们建立了一个体外 NMJ 模型，以研究运动神经元和肌肉细胞表达 ALS 引起超氧化物歧化酶 1 (SOD1) 突变对神经肌肉功能障碍的差异贡献。原代共培养系统允许形成功能性 NMJs，促进 ALS 敏感快速疲劳 II-b 型肌球蛋白重链亚型的表达。SOD1G93A 在肌管中的表达并不能阻止功能性 NMJ 的形成，但会导致收缩频率降低，并降低缓慢的 I 型肌球蛋白重链亚型转录水平。然而，SOD1G93A 在运动神经元和肌管中的表达或单独在运动神经元中的表达改变了功能性 NMJ 的形成。我们的结果有力地表明，运动神经元是参与 ALS 实验模型中 NMJ 拆除过程的主要因素。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.