Premature vascular disease in young adult stroke: a pathology-based case series.
- 作者列表："Pasi M","Rocha E","Samore W","Frosch MP","Viswanathan A","Singhal AB
INTRODUCTION:The prevalence of modifiable vascular risk factors is increasing in young adults and may contribute to the growing frequency of stroke in this population. The neuropathology and end-organ damage profile of young adult stroke patients with clinically advanced atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis has not been studied. METHODS:This retrospective study included patients aged 18-60 years admitted to our hospital from 1995 to 2017 with recurrent ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes, fatal stroke, or stroke associated with advanced small vessel disease (SVD) on brain MRI, who had no evidence for structural, genetic, inflammatory, or infectious etiology for stroke, and had adequate pathological materials available for analysis. The presence of atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, and nephrosclerosis was evaluated. RESULTS:Twelve patients (mean age 47 ± 9 years, range 31-57 years, 67% male) met inclusion criteria. Four had fatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), three had recurrent non-fatal ICH, one had ICH with advanced SVD on MRI, and four had recurrent ischemic strokes including two with transient ischemic attacks. Pathological studies showed moderate/severe atherosclerosis in 64% and moderate/severe arteriolosclerosis in 42% of patients. Pathological data to evaluate end-organ damage were available for nine patients; eight showed left ventricular hypertrophy and all showed nephrosclerosis. CONCLUSION:Young adult stroke patients with recurrent stroke, fatal stroke, or SVD on imaging have advanced atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis-related pathological changes in multiple organ systems. Aggressive control of atherosclerosis risk factors is warranted even in young individuals.
简介: 可改变的血管危险因素在年轻人中的患病率正在增加，并可能导致该人群中卒中频率的增加。临床晚期动脉粥样硬化或动脉硬化的年轻成人卒中患者的神经病理学和终末器官损伤特征尚未研究。 方法: 本回顾性研究包括 18-60 岁的患者，这些患者于 1995年至 2017年被我院收治，患有复发性缺血性或出血性卒中、致死性卒中或与晚期小血管病 (SVD) 相关的卒中。在脑 MRI 上，没有证据表明卒中的结构、遗传、炎症或感染病因,并有足够的病理资料可供分析。评估动脉粥样硬化、小动脉硬化、左心室肥厚和肾硬化的存在。 结果: 12 例患者 (平均年龄 47 ± 9 岁，范围 31-57 岁，67% 为男性) 符合入选标准。4 例有致死性脑出血 (ICH)，3 例复发性非致死性 ICH，1 例 ICH MRI 表现为晚期 SVD，4 例复发性缺血性卒中，包括 2 例短暂性脑缺血发作。病理学检查显示 64% 的患者存在中度/重度动脉粥样硬化，42% 的患者存在中度/重度动脉硬化。9 例患者可获得评价终末器官损害的病理资料; 8 例显示左心室肥厚，均显示肾硬化。 结论: 影像学上有复发性卒中、致死性卒中或 SVD 的青壮年卒中患者存在晚期动脉粥样硬化和多器官系统小动脉硬化相关病理改变。即使在年轻个体中，积极控制动脉粥样硬化危险因素也是必要的。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:People with stroke are not meeting recommended levels of physical activity. The modifiable factors associated with post-stroke physical activity levels need to be identified to develop targeted interventions. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to investigate the factors at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation that are associated with physical activity levels at 3 months following discharge. DESIGN:This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS:Sixty-four people with stroke completed baseline assessments at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and 55 completed the follow-up 3 months later. The candidate factors (i.e. gait speed, balance, strength, cognition, mood and motivation) were measured at discharge. The primary outcome measure at follow-up was walking related activity (measured by wrist-worn accelerometer). Secondary outcome measures were physical activity participation (Activity Card Sort) and intensity of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short 7 days). Adjusted separate multivariable linear regression models or proportional odds regression models were used to evaluate the associations between candidate factors and physical activity. RESULTS:Gait speed and balance were associated with all aspects of physical activity. Higher level of intrinsic motivation was also associated with higher physical activity participation. Anxiety demonstrated a significant non-linear relationship with physical activity participation. LIMITATIONS:Inclusion of fatigue and individual muscle strength could have provided further insights into associations with steps per day. CONCLUSION:The results demonstrated that better physical function at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation was associated with future increased levels of physical activity. Additionally, higher levels of motivation impacted on increased physical activity participation. The influence of anxiety on physical activity participation requires further exploration. Mixed-method study designs can be utilized to further understand the factors associated with post-stroke physical activity.
METHODS:Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by initial transient cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion. Various pathophysiological processes are involved in brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R. There are few studies on dynamic metabolic process after cerebral I/R. The present study was to observe dynamic alteration of brain injury, functional recovery, and metabolites after cerebral I/R in rats and discover potential metabolic markers. The cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min, following reperfusion in rats. The results of cerebral infarction area, cerebral edema, and behavior test showed that there were dynamic changes in brain injury and functional recovery at different periods after cerebral I/R. Further analysis showed that the brain injury was severe on the first day of cerebral I/R, and there was a significant functional recovery from the 7th day of cerebral I/R, followed by an aggravation trend of brain injury from the days 7 to 28. Furthermore, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging analysis showed that the expression of ATP, glucose, and citric acid on 7th day was the highest during cerebral I/R, which indicated that energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation played important roles during cerebral I/R. In addition, the untargeted metabolomic results showed that the level of isocitric acid, the ratio of oxyglutaric acid/glutamic acid, and the level of pyruvic acid associated with the TCA cycle were also the highest on the 7th day during cerebral I/R, which indicated that the transient spontaneous recovery of ischemic brain on the 7th day after ischemia-reperfusion might be related to oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism in the brain in this period. In conclusion, the results suggest that some small molecule metabolites participate in the brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R, which is of great significance to the development of therapeutic drugs and diagnostic markers.
METHODS:The aims of this study were to study the effects of miR-2 on cerebral ischemia–reperfusion rats and to explore its further mechanism. Rats were assigned into sham, model, miR-22 control and miR-22 groups. Observation of neurological behaviors at 24 h after operation found that neurological functions were severely damaged in the model and miR-22 control groups and these damages were improved by miR-22. RT-PCR indicated that miR-22 mRNA level in the brain tissue was significantly decreased in the model and miR-22 control groups, but increased in the miR-22 group. TTC staining showed increased percentage of cerebral infarction volume in the model and miR-22 control groups and this increase was reduced by miR-22. Immunohistochemistry showed increased densities of CD34^+ and VEGF^+ microvessels in the cortex in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. ELISA showed increased serum VEGF and Ang-1 levels in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were also further increased in the miR-22 group. Western blot analysis showed increased phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt in brain tissue in the model and miR-22 control groups, which were further increased in the miR-22 group. Administration of LY294002, a specific PI3K pathway inhibitor, significantly reversed all the effects of miR-22 on rats in the model group. miR-22 exerts its neuroprotective and angiogenic functions via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, at least partly, in rats under cerebral ischemia–reperfusion.